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In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care.

Anand G, Ravinanthan M, Basaviah R, Shetty AV - J Pharm Bioallied Sci (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses.Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens.Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research, K.S.Hedge Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial.

Materials and methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines.

Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses.

Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a and b) Zone of inhibition by mango and cashew extract against Candida albicans, respectively. In each plate from upper left extract, chlorhexidine gluconate-based mouth rinse, povidone-iodine-based mouth rinse and ethanol are placed in clockwise direction
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Figure 5: (a and b) Zone of inhibition by mango and cashew extract against Candida albicans, respectively. In each plate from upper left extract, chlorhexidine gluconate-based mouth rinse, povidone-iodine-based mouth rinse and ethanol are placed in clockwise direction

Mentions: The antimicrobial activity (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of cashew and mango leaf extracts is shown in Table 1. S. mutans and E. coli showed the highest susceptibility to cashew and mango leaf extracts, respectively [Figure 3]. The zone of inhibition of cashew and mango against E. faecalis was highly significant (P < 0.001) compared to PI-based mouth rinse [Figure 4a and b]. Although, the extracts produced a greater zone of inhibition against E. faecalis; compared to CHX mouth rinse, was found to be not significant (P > 0.05). There was no difference in the antimicrobial action of cashew leaf extract against S. aureus, S. mutans, E. coli, and C. albicans compared to CHX-based mouth rinse (P > 0.05). But compared to PI mouth rinse, the cashew leaf extract showed significantly (P < 0.001) greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of mango extract against S. aureus [Figure 4c and d] and S. mutans was significant (P < 0.05) as compared to PI mouth rinse. Against E. coli, mango leaf extract was highly significant (P < 0.001) compared to both the mouth rinses. The antifungal activity by the cashew leaf extract [Figure 5] was comparatively more than the CHX based mouth rinse although no significant difference was noted (P > 0.05). No zone of inhibition was observed around the ethanol against the tested pathogens.


In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care.

Anand G, Ravinanthan M, Basaviah R, Shetty AV - J Pharm Bioallied Sci (2015 Jan-Mar)

(a and b) Zone of inhibition by mango and cashew extract against Candida albicans, respectively. In each plate from upper left extract, chlorhexidine gluconate-based mouth rinse, povidone-iodine-based mouth rinse and ethanol are placed in clockwise direction
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4333632&req=5

Figure 5: (a and b) Zone of inhibition by mango and cashew extract against Candida albicans, respectively. In each plate from upper left extract, chlorhexidine gluconate-based mouth rinse, povidone-iodine-based mouth rinse and ethanol are placed in clockwise direction
Mentions: The antimicrobial activity (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of cashew and mango leaf extracts is shown in Table 1. S. mutans and E. coli showed the highest susceptibility to cashew and mango leaf extracts, respectively [Figure 3]. The zone of inhibition of cashew and mango against E. faecalis was highly significant (P < 0.001) compared to PI-based mouth rinse [Figure 4a and b]. Although, the extracts produced a greater zone of inhibition against E. faecalis; compared to CHX mouth rinse, was found to be not significant (P > 0.05). There was no difference in the antimicrobial action of cashew leaf extract against S. aureus, S. mutans, E. coli, and C. albicans compared to CHX-based mouth rinse (P > 0.05). But compared to PI mouth rinse, the cashew leaf extract showed significantly (P < 0.001) greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of mango extract against S. aureus [Figure 4c and d] and S. mutans was significant (P < 0.05) as compared to PI mouth rinse. Against E. coli, mango leaf extract was highly significant (P < 0.001) compared to both the mouth rinses. The antifungal activity by the cashew leaf extract [Figure 5] was comparatively more than the CHX based mouth rinse although no significant difference was noted (P > 0.05). No zone of inhibition was observed around the ethanol against the tested pathogens.

Bottom Line: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses.Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens.Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research, K.S.Hedge Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial.

Materials and methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines.

Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses.

Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus