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Facing off with unfair others: introducing proxemic imaging as an implicit measure of approach and avoidance during social interaction.

McCall C, Singer T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, participants who actively punished the unfair players were more likely to stand directly in front of those players and even to turn their backs on them.Together these patterns illustrate that fairness violations influence nonverbal behavior in ways that further predict differences in more overt behavior (i.e., financial punishment).Moreover, they demonstrate that proxemic imaging can detect subtle combinations of approach and avoidance behavior during face-to-face social interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Nonverbal behavior expresses many of the dynamics underlying face-to-face social interactions, implicitly revealing one's attitudes, emotions, and social motives. Although research has often described nonverbal behavior as approach versus avoidant (i.e., through the study of proxemics), psychological responses to many social contexts are a mix of these two. Fairness violations are an ideal example, eliciting strong avoidance-related responses such as negative attitudes, as well as strong approach-related responses such as anger and retaliation. As such, nonverbal behavior toward unfair others is difficult to predict in discrete approach versus avoidance terms. Here we address this problem using proxemic imaging, a new method which creates frequency images of dyadic space by combining motion capture data of interpersonal distance and gaze to provide an objective but nuanced analysis of social interactions. Participants first played an economic game with fair and unfair players and then encountered them in an unrelated task in a virtual environment. Afterwards, they could monetarily punish the other players. Proxemic images of the interactions demonstrate that, overall, participants kept the fair player closer. However, participants who actively punished the unfair players were more likely to stand directly in front of those players and even to turn their backs on them. Together these patterns illustrate that fairness violations influence nonverbal behavior in ways that further predict differences in more overt behavior (i.e., financial punishment). Moreover, they demonstrate that proxemic imaging can detect subtle combinations of approach and avoidance behavior during face-to-face social interactions.

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The fairness contrast (fair > unfair).The t-statistic contrasts for the participants’ proxemic responses to fair versus unfair players reveal a significant cluster in the other player’s social space (cluster p <.001) and a marginally significant cluster in the Participant’s social space (cluster p = .07). These patterns reflect relatively more approach of the fair players.
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pone.0117532.g003: The fairness contrast (fair > unfair).The t-statistic contrasts for the participants’ proxemic responses to fair versus unfair players reveal a significant cluster in the other player’s social space (cluster p <.001) and a marginally significant cluster in the Participant’s social space (cluster p = .07). These patterns reflect relatively more approach of the fair players.

Mentions: Fairness versus Unfairness. To compare proxemic responses to the fair versus unfair players, we used within-subject t-tests for each type of proxemic map (Fig. 3). The contrast of the other players’ space maps reveals that participants were significantly more likely to come close to the fair players (cluster p < .001). A similar, although marginal pattern (p = .07) emerged in the participant’s space map whereby participants kept the fair player closer to their sides and back (but not front). There were no significant differences in the dyadic gaze maps, suggesting that there were no differences in the joint gaze patterns between the participant and the two types of other players (e.g., no differences in mutual gaze, mutual gaze aversion, or one-sided aversion). Together these contrasts illustrate the predicted pattern whereby participants approached the fair versus the unfair players, although only in terms of interpersonal distance.


Facing off with unfair others: introducing proxemic imaging as an implicit measure of approach and avoidance during social interaction.

McCall C, Singer T - PLoS ONE (2015)

The fairness contrast (fair > unfair).The t-statistic contrasts for the participants’ proxemic responses to fair versus unfair players reveal a significant cluster in the other player’s social space (cluster p <.001) and a marginally significant cluster in the Participant’s social space (cluster p = .07). These patterns reflect relatively more approach of the fair players.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4326128&req=5

pone.0117532.g003: The fairness contrast (fair > unfair).The t-statistic contrasts for the participants’ proxemic responses to fair versus unfair players reveal a significant cluster in the other player’s social space (cluster p <.001) and a marginally significant cluster in the Participant’s social space (cluster p = .07). These patterns reflect relatively more approach of the fair players.
Mentions: Fairness versus Unfairness. To compare proxemic responses to the fair versus unfair players, we used within-subject t-tests for each type of proxemic map (Fig. 3). The contrast of the other players’ space maps reveals that participants were significantly more likely to come close to the fair players (cluster p < .001). A similar, although marginal pattern (p = .07) emerged in the participant’s space map whereby participants kept the fair player closer to their sides and back (but not front). There were no significant differences in the dyadic gaze maps, suggesting that there were no differences in the joint gaze patterns between the participant and the two types of other players (e.g., no differences in mutual gaze, mutual gaze aversion, or one-sided aversion). Together these contrasts illustrate the predicted pattern whereby participants approached the fair versus the unfair players, although only in terms of interpersonal distance.

Bottom Line: However, participants who actively punished the unfair players were more likely to stand directly in front of those players and even to turn their backs on them.Together these patterns illustrate that fairness violations influence nonverbal behavior in ways that further predict differences in more overt behavior (i.e., financial punishment).Moreover, they demonstrate that proxemic imaging can detect subtle combinations of approach and avoidance behavior during face-to-face social interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Nonverbal behavior expresses many of the dynamics underlying face-to-face social interactions, implicitly revealing one's attitudes, emotions, and social motives. Although research has often described nonverbal behavior as approach versus avoidant (i.e., through the study of proxemics), psychological responses to many social contexts are a mix of these two. Fairness violations are an ideal example, eliciting strong avoidance-related responses such as negative attitudes, as well as strong approach-related responses such as anger and retaliation. As such, nonverbal behavior toward unfair others is difficult to predict in discrete approach versus avoidance terms. Here we address this problem using proxemic imaging, a new method which creates frequency images of dyadic space by combining motion capture data of interpersonal distance and gaze to provide an objective but nuanced analysis of social interactions. Participants first played an economic game with fair and unfair players and then encountered them in an unrelated task in a virtual environment. Afterwards, they could monetarily punish the other players. Proxemic images of the interactions demonstrate that, overall, participants kept the fair player closer. However, participants who actively punished the unfair players were more likely to stand directly in front of those players and even to turn their backs on them. Together these patterns illustrate that fairness violations influence nonverbal behavior in ways that further predict differences in more overt behavior (i.e., financial punishment). Moreover, they demonstrate that proxemic imaging can detect subtle combinations of approach and avoidance behavior during face-to-face social interactions.

Show MeSH