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Diagnostic approach for monitoring hydroclimatic conditions related to emergence of west nile virus in west virginia.

Jutla A, Huq A, Colwell RR - Front Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of land surface temperature (LST) pattern shows that temperature values >16°C, with heavy precipitation, may lead to abundance of the mosquito population.This hypothesis was tested in West Virginia where a sudden epidemic of WNV infection was reported in 2012.Our results emphasize the value of hydroclimatic processes estimated by satellite remote sensing, as well as continued environmental surveillance of mosquitoes, because when a vector-borne infection like WNV is discovered in contiguous regions, the risk of spread of WNV mosquitoes increase at points where appropriate hydroclimatic processes intersect with the vector niche.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, West Virginia University , Morgantown, WV , USA.

ABSTRACT
West Nile virus (WNV), mosquito-borne and water-based disease, is increasingly a global threat to public health. Since its appearance in the northeastern United States in 1999, WNV has since been reported in several states in the continental United States. The objective of this study is to highlight role of hydroclimatic processes estimated through satellite sensors in capturing conditions for emergence of the vectors in historically disease free regions. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in surface temperature, in combination with intensification of vegetation, and enhanced precipitation, lead to conditions favorable for vector (mosquito) growth. Analysis of land surface temperature (LST) pattern shows that temperature values >16°C, with heavy precipitation, may lead to abundance of the mosquito population. This hypothesis was tested in West Virginia where a sudden epidemic of WNV infection was reported in 2012. Our results emphasize the value of hydroclimatic processes estimated by satellite remote sensing, as well as continued environmental surveillance of mosquitoes, because when a vector-borne infection like WNV is discovered in contiguous regions, the risk of spread of WNV mosquitoes increase at points where appropriate hydroclimatic processes intersect with the vector niche.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Seasonality (monthly average) of West Nile Virus positive mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012; (B) cumulative spatial distribution of positive infectious mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012 [red color indicate positive WNV mosquito counts >9; orange color indicates counts between 1 and 9; and yellow indicates no reported positive mosquito count]; and (C) time series for infectious mosquito counts for West Virginia in last 10 years (data from ArboNET).
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Figure 1: (A) Seasonality (monthly average) of West Nile Virus positive mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012; (B) cumulative spatial distribution of positive infectious mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012 [red color indicate positive WNV mosquito counts >9; orange color indicates counts between 1 and 9; and yellow indicates no reported positive mosquito count]; and (C) time series for infectious mosquito counts for West Virginia in last 10 years (data from ArboNET).

Mentions: West Virginia was selected as the region of interest for the study because of the relatively low number of reported WNV human cases, but a steady increase in the number of mosquitoes testing positive for WNV. WNV mosquito activity has distinctive seasonality, generally occurring during the early autumn season (Figure 1A), with the potential to be linked with hydroclimatic variability. A sudden increase in WNV mosquitoes during 2012 (12) in this historically virus free region, combined with low prevalence of WNV cases in West Virginia, as occurred in, e.g., Colorado, California, and Texas, provided an opportunity for a case study in the region. Most of the WNV positive mosquitoes collected from pools in West Virginia were reported from June through September (Figure 1A), suggestive of a seasonal geophysical changes in the environment affecting the mosquitoes (8). The first cases of human WNV in West Virginia occurred in 2002. Weekly data on mosquitoes testing positive for West Nile were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ArboNET database, a national surveillance system for arboviral diseases in the United States. Satellite data were acquired from the MODIS and reprojected using MODIS reprojection tool over the entire West Virginia (rectangular upper left corner 40°N and 82.67°W and lower right corner 37.17°N and 78.15°W). LST (MOD11A2) data were obtained in an 8-day composite to minimize cloud effects and the fact that our analysis is on monthly scale. Precipitation data obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service. Precipitation data (PRECL) for the same grid box, available at 1° × 1° resolution, were obtained from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).


Diagnostic approach for monitoring hydroclimatic conditions related to emergence of west nile virus in west virginia.

Jutla A, Huq A, Colwell RR - Front Public Health (2015)

(A) Seasonality (monthly average) of West Nile Virus positive mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012; (B) cumulative spatial distribution of positive infectious mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012 [red color indicate positive WNV mosquito counts >9; orange color indicates counts between 1 and 9; and yellow indicates no reported positive mosquito count]; and (C) time series for infectious mosquito counts for West Virginia in last 10 years (data from ArboNET).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325936&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Seasonality (monthly average) of West Nile Virus positive mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012; (B) cumulative spatial distribution of positive infectious mosquitoes from 2003 to 2012 [red color indicate positive WNV mosquito counts >9; orange color indicates counts between 1 and 9; and yellow indicates no reported positive mosquito count]; and (C) time series for infectious mosquito counts for West Virginia in last 10 years (data from ArboNET).
Mentions: West Virginia was selected as the region of interest for the study because of the relatively low number of reported WNV human cases, but a steady increase in the number of mosquitoes testing positive for WNV. WNV mosquito activity has distinctive seasonality, generally occurring during the early autumn season (Figure 1A), with the potential to be linked with hydroclimatic variability. A sudden increase in WNV mosquitoes during 2012 (12) in this historically virus free region, combined with low prevalence of WNV cases in West Virginia, as occurred in, e.g., Colorado, California, and Texas, provided an opportunity for a case study in the region. Most of the WNV positive mosquitoes collected from pools in West Virginia were reported from June through September (Figure 1A), suggestive of a seasonal geophysical changes in the environment affecting the mosquitoes (8). The first cases of human WNV in West Virginia occurred in 2002. Weekly data on mosquitoes testing positive for West Nile were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ArboNET database, a national surveillance system for arboviral diseases in the United States. Satellite data were acquired from the MODIS and reprojected using MODIS reprojection tool over the entire West Virginia (rectangular upper left corner 40°N and 82.67°W and lower right corner 37.17°N and 78.15°W). LST (MOD11A2) data were obtained in an 8-day composite to minimize cloud effects and the fact that our analysis is on monthly scale. Precipitation data obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service. Precipitation data (PRECL) for the same grid box, available at 1° × 1° resolution, were obtained from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Bottom Line: Analysis of land surface temperature (LST) pattern shows that temperature values >16°C, with heavy precipitation, may lead to abundance of the mosquito population.This hypothesis was tested in West Virginia where a sudden epidemic of WNV infection was reported in 2012.Our results emphasize the value of hydroclimatic processes estimated by satellite remote sensing, as well as continued environmental surveillance of mosquitoes, because when a vector-borne infection like WNV is discovered in contiguous regions, the risk of spread of WNV mosquitoes increase at points where appropriate hydroclimatic processes intersect with the vector niche.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, West Virginia University , Morgantown, WV , USA.

ABSTRACT
West Nile virus (WNV), mosquito-borne and water-based disease, is increasingly a global threat to public health. Since its appearance in the northeastern United States in 1999, WNV has since been reported in several states in the continental United States. The objective of this study is to highlight role of hydroclimatic processes estimated through satellite sensors in capturing conditions for emergence of the vectors in historically disease free regions. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in surface temperature, in combination with intensification of vegetation, and enhanced precipitation, lead to conditions favorable for vector (mosquito) growth. Analysis of land surface temperature (LST) pattern shows that temperature values >16°C, with heavy precipitation, may lead to abundance of the mosquito population. This hypothesis was tested in West Virginia where a sudden epidemic of WNV infection was reported in 2012. Our results emphasize the value of hydroclimatic processes estimated by satellite remote sensing, as well as continued environmental surveillance of mosquitoes, because when a vector-borne infection like WNV is discovered in contiguous regions, the risk of spread of WNV mosquitoes increase at points where appropriate hydroclimatic processes intersect with the vector niche.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus