Limits...
Redefining neuromarketing as an integrated science of influence.

Breiter HC, Block M, Blood AJ, Calder B, Chamberlain L, Lee N, Livengood S, Mulhern FJ, Raman K, Schultz D, Stern DB, Viswanathan V, Zhang FZ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices.Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function.The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warren Wright Adolescent Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL, USA ; Mood and Motor Control Laboratory or Laboratory of Neuroimaging and Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA ; Applied Neuromarketing Consortium, Medill, Kellogg, and Feinberg Schools, Northwestern University Evanston, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Multiple transformative forces target marketing, many of which derive from new technologies that allow us to sample thinking in real time (i.e., brain imaging), or to look at large aggregations of decisions (i.e., big data). There has been an inclination to refer to the intersection of these technologies with the general topic of marketing as "neuromarketing". There has not been a serious effort to frame neuromarketing, which is the goal of this paper. Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices. Neuromarketing, in contrast, focuses on how a distribution of choices can be shifted or "influenced", which can occur at multiple "scales" of behavior (e.g., individual, group, or market/society). Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function. The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) This schema describes an engineering-based behavioral science (EBS) model of psychological domains that can be integrated in accordance with existing non- engineering-based models of emotion. Unlike other frameworks, EBS evaluates mathematical, law-like relationships between cognitive domains such as (i) reward/aversion processing, (ii) attention, (iii) memory, and (iv) perception, rather than associative relationships based purely on statistics. There are a number of modern theoretical constructs for emotion, including two examples shown from work by (B) Barrett and (C) Gross, and they tend to include the components we suggest integrating through EBS. (D) Individuals, groups, and/or societies/markets can exert “influence” to shift distributions of choice behavior in others. This expression of “influence” can be exerted within scale and across scale (e.g., by a group on an individual). Neuromarketing uses the valuation aspect of neuroeconomics (i.e., reward/aversion processing) and tries to integrate it with other behavioral science and neuroscience constructs, such as attention, memory and perception, which are all components of the EBS model. It tries to do this at the level of the individual, the group, and society, which are each different scales of measure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325919&req=5

Figure 2: (A) This schema describes an engineering-based behavioral science (EBS) model of psychological domains that can be integrated in accordance with existing non- engineering-based models of emotion. Unlike other frameworks, EBS evaluates mathematical, law-like relationships between cognitive domains such as (i) reward/aversion processing, (ii) attention, (iii) memory, and (iv) perception, rather than associative relationships based purely on statistics. There are a number of modern theoretical constructs for emotion, including two examples shown from work by (B) Barrett and (C) Gross, and they tend to include the components we suggest integrating through EBS. (D) Individuals, groups, and/or societies/markets can exert “influence” to shift distributions of choice behavior in others. This expression of “influence” can be exerted within scale and across scale (e.g., by a group on an individual). Neuromarketing uses the valuation aspect of neuroeconomics (i.e., reward/aversion processing) and tries to integrate it with other behavioral science and neuroscience constructs, such as attention, memory and perception, which are all components of the EBS model. It tries to do this at the level of the individual, the group, and society, which are each different scales of measure.

Mentions: In considering the balance between internal and external preference, cognitive processes thought to be separate from that of the valuation of options come into play, such as perception, attention, and memory (Ioannides et al., 2000; Ariely and Berns, 2010). At this time, no theoretical schema and little empirical data exist for how these theoretically independent cognitive processes interact, but cognitive processes for perception of outside stimuli exerting influence, attention to their features, and memory for comparison of such features to prior percepts are necessary operations for processing “influence”. Exerting “influence” to change another’s behavior, or being the subject of outside “influence” to change your own behavior thus need to be considered in a much broader construct of mental operations (see Figure 2A). One must also recognize that this ensemble of operations (i.e., perception, attention, memory, reward/aversion processing) have been extensively theorized to be core processes for emotion (Breiter and Gasic, 2004; Barrett, 2006; Gross, 2009, 2013; Kuppens et al., 2013; Lindquist et al., 2013). Specific examples of this are schematized in Figures 2B,C for the models of Barrett (2006) and Gross (2009, 2013).


Redefining neuromarketing as an integrated science of influence.

Breiter HC, Block M, Blood AJ, Calder B, Chamberlain L, Lee N, Livengood S, Mulhern FJ, Raman K, Schultz D, Stern DB, Viswanathan V, Zhang FZ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

(A) This schema describes an engineering-based behavioral science (EBS) model of psychological domains that can be integrated in accordance with existing non- engineering-based models of emotion. Unlike other frameworks, EBS evaluates mathematical, law-like relationships between cognitive domains such as (i) reward/aversion processing, (ii) attention, (iii) memory, and (iv) perception, rather than associative relationships based purely on statistics. There are a number of modern theoretical constructs for emotion, including two examples shown from work by (B) Barrett and (C) Gross, and they tend to include the components we suggest integrating through EBS. (D) Individuals, groups, and/or societies/markets can exert “influence” to shift distributions of choice behavior in others. This expression of “influence” can be exerted within scale and across scale (e.g., by a group on an individual). Neuromarketing uses the valuation aspect of neuroeconomics (i.e., reward/aversion processing) and tries to integrate it with other behavioral science and neuroscience constructs, such as attention, memory and perception, which are all components of the EBS model. It tries to do this at the level of the individual, the group, and society, which are each different scales of measure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325919&req=5

Figure 2: (A) This schema describes an engineering-based behavioral science (EBS) model of psychological domains that can be integrated in accordance with existing non- engineering-based models of emotion. Unlike other frameworks, EBS evaluates mathematical, law-like relationships between cognitive domains such as (i) reward/aversion processing, (ii) attention, (iii) memory, and (iv) perception, rather than associative relationships based purely on statistics. There are a number of modern theoretical constructs for emotion, including two examples shown from work by (B) Barrett and (C) Gross, and they tend to include the components we suggest integrating through EBS. (D) Individuals, groups, and/or societies/markets can exert “influence” to shift distributions of choice behavior in others. This expression of “influence” can be exerted within scale and across scale (e.g., by a group on an individual). Neuromarketing uses the valuation aspect of neuroeconomics (i.e., reward/aversion processing) and tries to integrate it with other behavioral science and neuroscience constructs, such as attention, memory and perception, which are all components of the EBS model. It tries to do this at the level of the individual, the group, and society, which are each different scales of measure.
Mentions: In considering the balance between internal and external preference, cognitive processes thought to be separate from that of the valuation of options come into play, such as perception, attention, and memory (Ioannides et al., 2000; Ariely and Berns, 2010). At this time, no theoretical schema and little empirical data exist for how these theoretically independent cognitive processes interact, but cognitive processes for perception of outside stimuli exerting influence, attention to their features, and memory for comparison of such features to prior percepts are necessary operations for processing “influence”. Exerting “influence” to change another’s behavior, or being the subject of outside “influence” to change your own behavior thus need to be considered in a much broader construct of mental operations (see Figure 2A). One must also recognize that this ensemble of operations (i.e., perception, attention, memory, reward/aversion processing) have been extensively theorized to be core processes for emotion (Breiter and Gasic, 2004; Barrett, 2006; Gross, 2009, 2013; Kuppens et al., 2013; Lindquist et al., 2013). Specific examples of this are schematized in Figures 2B,C for the models of Barrett (2006) and Gross (2009, 2013).

Bottom Line: Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices.Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function.The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warren Wright Adolescent Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL, USA ; Mood and Motor Control Laboratory or Laboratory of Neuroimaging and Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA ; Applied Neuromarketing Consortium, Medill, Kellogg, and Feinberg Schools, Northwestern University Evanston, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Multiple transformative forces target marketing, many of which derive from new technologies that allow us to sample thinking in real time (i.e., brain imaging), or to look at large aggregations of decisions (i.e., big data). There has been an inclination to refer to the intersection of these technologies with the general topic of marketing as "neuromarketing". There has not been a serious effort to frame neuromarketing, which is the goal of this paper. Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices. Neuromarketing, in contrast, focuses on how a distribution of choices can be shifted or "influenced", which can occur at multiple "scales" of behavior (e.g., individual, group, or market/society). Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function. The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus