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Redefining neuromarketing as an integrated science of influence.

Breiter HC, Block M, Blood AJ, Calder B, Chamberlain L, Lee N, Livengood S, Mulhern FJ, Raman K, Schultz D, Stern DB, Viswanathan V, Zhang FZ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices.Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function.The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warren Wright Adolescent Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL, USA ; Mood and Motor Control Laboratory or Laboratory of Neuroimaging and Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA ; Applied Neuromarketing Consortium, Medill, Kellogg, and Feinberg Schools, Northwestern University Evanston, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Multiple transformative forces target marketing, many of which derive from new technologies that allow us to sample thinking in real time (i.e., brain imaging), or to look at large aggregations of decisions (i.e., big data). There has been an inclination to refer to the intersection of these technologies with the general topic of marketing as "neuromarketing". There has not been a serious effort to frame neuromarketing, which is the goal of this paper. Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices. Neuromarketing, in contrast, focuses on how a distribution of choices can be shifted or "influenced", which can occur at multiple "scales" of behavior (e.g., individual, group, or market/society). Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function. The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Neuroeconomics focuses on the model of choice, which is centered on how we assess reward/aversion. This flow diagram shows four steps involved in making a choice. For the second step, there are several theories that have been proposed to model valuation of choices. Matching theory and alliesthesia (hedonic deficit theory) are two theories heavily used in neuroscience. Prospect and portfolio theory are used in economics. All four theories have been used in neuroeconomics. New to the set of valuation theories is relative preference theory (RPT) that is the only valuation theory meeting Feynman criteria for lawfulness, using an information variable, or actually scaling from group to individual behavior. Because of this scaling across group and individual behavior, and the fact it can be framed as a power law, RPT actually encodes the fundamental features of the other four theories, and can be used to ground them or even derive them. (B) In contrast to economics and neuroeconomics with their focus on choice, marketing is focused on “influence”, which looks at how distributions of choice behavior can be shifted or altered. This diagram sketches one potential model for the effect of influence on behavior. Influence can be considered the difference in gradients for preference inside a person (or organism) and outside a person. These gradients of preference might be schematized by RPT. They would be filtered and processed by valuation functions mentioned in panel (A), which include alliesthesia or hedonic deficit theory regarding what is in deficit for an individual, along with matching, prospect theory, and the variance mean approach to portfolio theory. This processing would facilitate integration of the gradient inputs and determine what goal-objects or events become the focus of behavior, along with providing the intensity for it. Other cognitive functions such as memory are critical to this processing and evaluation of relative costs/benefits to prospective behavior; together they give behavior its direction and intensity. Behavior, in turn, feeds back onto these internal and external gradients of preference as experienced utility of expressed behavior.
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Figure 1: (A) Neuroeconomics focuses on the model of choice, which is centered on how we assess reward/aversion. This flow diagram shows four steps involved in making a choice. For the second step, there are several theories that have been proposed to model valuation of choices. Matching theory and alliesthesia (hedonic deficit theory) are two theories heavily used in neuroscience. Prospect and portfolio theory are used in economics. All four theories have been used in neuroeconomics. New to the set of valuation theories is relative preference theory (RPT) that is the only valuation theory meeting Feynman criteria for lawfulness, using an information variable, or actually scaling from group to individual behavior. Because of this scaling across group and individual behavior, and the fact it can be framed as a power law, RPT actually encodes the fundamental features of the other four theories, and can be used to ground them or even derive them. (B) In contrast to economics and neuroeconomics with their focus on choice, marketing is focused on “influence”, which looks at how distributions of choice behavior can be shifted or altered. This diagram sketches one potential model for the effect of influence on behavior. Influence can be considered the difference in gradients for preference inside a person (or organism) and outside a person. These gradients of preference might be schematized by RPT. They would be filtered and processed by valuation functions mentioned in panel (A), which include alliesthesia or hedonic deficit theory regarding what is in deficit for an individual, along with matching, prospect theory, and the variance mean approach to portfolio theory. This processing would facilitate integration of the gradient inputs and determine what goal-objects or events become the focus of behavior, along with providing the intensity for it. Other cognitive functions such as memory are critical to this processing and evaluation of relative costs/benefits to prospective behavior; together they give behavior its direction and intensity. Behavior, in turn, feeds back onto these internal and external gradients of preference as experienced utility of expressed behavior.

Mentions: It is helpful to compare neuromarketing to neuroeconomics, with which it may appear to overlap. Neuroeconomics tends to focus on individual and group choice, or judgment and decision-making in the context of consumables or markets (Figure 1A; Camerer, 2008). This focus on choice is distinct from the focus in neuromarketing on the issue of how individuals and groups might be shifted from one pattern of decisions to another pattern, or to change their distribution of choices.


Redefining neuromarketing as an integrated science of influence.

Breiter HC, Block M, Blood AJ, Calder B, Chamberlain L, Lee N, Livengood S, Mulhern FJ, Raman K, Schultz D, Stern DB, Viswanathan V, Zhang FZ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

(A) Neuroeconomics focuses on the model of choice, which is centered on how we assess reward/aversion. This flow diagram shows four steps involved in making a choice. For the second step, there are several theories that have been proposed to model valuation of choices. Matching theory and alliesthesia (hedonic deficit theory) are two theories heavily used in neuroscience. Prospect and portfolio theory are used in economics. All four theories have been used in neuroeconomics. New to the set of valuation theories is relative preference theory (RPT) that is the only valuation theory meeting Feynman criteria for lawfulness, using an information variable, or actually scaling from group to individual behavior. Because of this scaling across group and individual behavior, and the fact it can be framed as a power law, RPT actually encodes the fundamental features of the other four theories, and can be used to ground them or even derive them. (B) In contrast to economics and neuroeconomics with their focus on choice, marketing is focused on “influence”, which looks at how distributions of choice behavior can be shifted or altered. This diagram sketches one potential model for the effect of influence on behavior. Influence can be considered the difference in gradients for preference inside a person (or organism) and outside a person. These gradients of preference might be schematized by RPT. They would be filtered and processed by valuation functions mentioned in panel (A), which include alliesthesia or hedonic deficit theory regarding what is in deficit for an individual, along with matching, prospect theory, and the variance mean approach to portfolio theory. This processing would facilitate integration of the gradient inputs and determine what goal-objects or events become the focus of behavior, along with providing the intensity for it. Other cognitive functions such as memory are critical to this processing and evaluation of relative costs/benefits to prospective behavior; together they give behavior its direction and intensity. Behavior, in turn, feeds back onto these internal and external gradients of preference as experienced utility of expressed behavior.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325919&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Neuroeconomics focuses on the model of choice, which is centered on how we assess reward/aversion. This flow diagram shows four steps involved in making a choice. For the second step, there are several theories that have been proposed to model valuation of choices. Matching theory and alliesthesia (hedonic deficit theory) are two theories heavily used in neuroscience. Prospect and portfolio theory are used in economics. All four theories have been used in neuroeconomics. New to the set of valuation theories is relative preference theory (RPT) that is the only valuation theory meeting Feynman criteria for lawfulness, using an information variable, or actually scaling from group to individual behavior. Because of this scaling across group and individual behavior, and the fact it can be framed as a power law, RPT actually encodes the fundamental features of the other four theories, and can be used to ground them or even derive them. (B) In contrast to economics and neuroeconomics with their focus on choice, marketing is focused on “influence”, which looks at how distributions of choice behavior can be shifted or altered. This diagram sketches one potential model for the effect of influence on behavior. Influence can be considered the difference in gradients for preference inside a person (or organism) and outside a person. These gradients of preference might be schematized by RPT. They would be filtered and processed by valuation functions mentioned in panel (A), which include alliesthesia or hedonic deficit theory regarding what is in deficit for an individual, along with matching, prospect theory, and the variance mean approach to portfolio theory. This processing would facilitate integration of the gradient inputs and determine what goal-objects or events become the focus of behavior, along with providing the intensity for it. Other cognitive functions such as memory are critical to this processing and evaluation of relative costs/benefits to prospective behavior; together they give behavior its direction and intensity. Behavior, in turn, feeds back onto these internal and external gradients of preference as experienced utility of expressed behavior.
Mentions: It is helpful to compare neuromarketing to neuroeconomics, with which it may appear to overlap. Neuroeconomics tends to focus on individual and group choice, or judgment and decision-making in the context of consumables or markets (Figure 1A; Camerer, 2008). This focus on choice is distinct from the focus in neuromarketing on the issue of how individuals and groups might be shifted from one pattern of decisions to another pattern, or to change their distribution of choices.

Bottom Line: Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices.Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function.The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warren Wright Adolescent Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL, USA ; Mood and Motor Control Laboratory or Laboratory of Neuroimaging and Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA ; Applied Neuromarketing Consortium, Medill, Kellogg, and Feinberg Schools, Northwestern University Evanston, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Multiple transformative forces target marketing, many of which derive from new technologies that allow us to sample thinking in real time (i.e., brain imaging), or to look at large aggregations of decisions (i.e., big data). There has been an inclination to refer to the intersection of these technologies with the general topic of marketing as "neuromarketing". There has not been a serious effort to frame neuromarketing, which is the goal of this paper. Neuromarketing can be compared to neuroeconomics, wherein neuroeconomics is generally focused on how individuals make "choices", and represent distributions of choices. Neuromarketing, in contrast, focuses on how a distribution of choices can be shifted or "influenced", which can occur at multiple "scales" of behavior (e.g., individual, group, or market/society). Given influence can affect choice through many cognitive modalities, and not just that of valuation of choice options, a science of influence also implies a need to develop a model of cognitive function integrating attention, memory, and reward/aversion function. The paper concludes with a brief description of three domains of neuromarketing application for studying influence, and their caveats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus