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Cilia in the choroid plexus: their roles in hydrocephalus and beyond.

Narita K, Takeda S - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type.Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain.In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cilia are whip-like projections that are widely conserved in eukaryotes and function as a motile propeller and/or sensory platform to detect various extracellular stimuli. In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of cilia in choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs). CPECs form one or two dozen non-motile 9+0 cilia, which display transient acquisition of motility during development. Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain. Especially, several groups have demonstrated that the defects in CPEC cilia cause the communicating form of hydrocephalus. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hydrocephalus, we have previously demonstrated that the cilia possess an NPFF receptor for autocrine signaling to regulate transepithelial fluid transport. In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

General structure of cilia. (A) A longitudinal section of a CPEC cilium. The cilium emerges from the microvilli-rich apical cell surface. The structure is supported by the axoneme and basal body (pseudo-colored in green and magenta, respectively). The distal appendage (cyan) connects to the basal body and cell membrane. In the transition zone, characteristic Y-shaped structures bridges the axoneme and ciliary membrane, which can be recognized in horizontal sections. MTs, microtubules. Bar, 500 nm. (B) Schematics of transverse sections of motile 9+2 and non-motile 9+0 cilia.
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Figure 1: General structure of cilia. (A) A longitudinal section of a CPEC cilium. The cilium emerges from the microvilli-rich apical cell surface. The structure is supported by the axoneme and basal body (pseudo-colored in green and magenta, respectively). The distal appendage (cyan) connects to the basal body and cell membrane. In the transition zone, characteristic Y-shaped structures bridges the axoneme and ciliary membrane, which can be recognized in horizontal sections. MTs, microtubules. Bar, 500 nm. (B) Schematics of transverse sections of motile 9+2 and non-motile 9+0 cilia.

Mentions: Cilia are hair-like projections on the cell surface with a diameter of ~250 nm and various lengths of typically 5–10 μm (Figure 1A). Their structure is supported and anchored to the cell by characteristic cytoskeletal scaffolds called the axoneme and basal body in which doublet and triplet microtubules, respectively, are radially arranged with nine-fold symmetry. Cilia are widely conserved across eukaryotic species, and in many unicellular organisms, their active vibration is necessary for propelling the cell. In vertebrates, cilia have been observed with various characteristics, such as length, motility, and number per cell, depending on the tissues and cell type including neurons and glia in the brain (Gerdes et al., 2009; Louvi and Grove, 2011; Takeda and Narita, 2012).


Cilia in the choroid plexus: their roles in hydrocephalus and beyond.

Narita K, Takeda S - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

General structure of cilia. (A) A longitudinal section of a CPEC cilium. The cilium emerges from the microvilli-rich apical cell surface. The structure is supported by the axoneme and basal body (pseudo-colored in green and magenta, respectively). The distal appendage (cyan) connects to the basal body and cell membrane. In the transition zone, characteristic Y-shaped structures bridges the axoneme and ciliary membrane, which can be recognized in horizontal sections. MTs, microtubules. Bar, 500 nm. (B) Schematics of transverse sections of motile 9+2 and non-motile 9+0 cilia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325912&req=5

Figure 1: General structure of cilia. (A) A longitudinal section of a CPEC cilium. The cilium emerges from the microvilli-rich apical cell surface. The structure is supported by the axoneme and basal body (pseudo-colored in green and magenta, respectively). The distal appendage (cyan) connects to the basal body and cell membrane. In the transition zone, characteristic Y-shaped structures bridges the axoneme and ciliary membrane, which can be recognized in horizontal sections. MTs, microtubules. Bar, 500 nm. (B) Schematics of transverse sections of motile 9+2 and non-motile 9+0 cilia.
Mentions: Cilia are hair-like projections on the cell surface with a diameter of ~250 nm and various lengths of typically 5–10 μm (Figure 1A). Their structure is supported and anchored to the cell by characteristic cytoskeletal scaffolds called the axoneme and basal body in which doublet and triplet microtubules, respectively, are radially arranged with nine-fold symmetry. Cilia are widely conserved across eukaryotic species, and in many unicellular organisms, their active vibration is necessary for propelling the cell. In vertebrates, cilia have been observed with various characteristics, such as length, motility, and number per cell, depending on the tissues and cell type including neurons and glia in the brain (Gerdes et al., 2009; Louvi and Grove, 2011; Takeda and Narita, 2012).

Bottom Line: In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type.Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain.In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cilia are whip-like projections that are widely conserved in eukaryotes and function as a motile propeller and/or sensory platform to detect various extracellular stimuli. In vertebrates, cilia are ubiquitously found in most cells, showing structural and functional diversities depending on the cell type. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of cilia in choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs). CPECs form one or two dozen non-motile 9+0 cilia, which display transient acquisition of motility during development. Genetic malfunction of cilia can lead to failure of multiple organs including the brain. Especially, several groups have demonstrated that the defects in CPEC cilia cause the communicating form of hydrocephalus. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hydrocephalus, we have previously demonstrated that the cilia possess an NPFF receptor for autocrine signaling to regulate transepithelial fluid transport. In this perspective, we also discuss the potential involvement of cilia in the other aspects of choroid plexus functions, such as the regulation of brain development and neuroinflammation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus