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Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

Roberts JR, Anderson SE, Kan H, Krajnak K, Thompson JA, Kenyon A, Goldsmith WT, McKinney W, Frazer DG, Jackson M, Fedan JS - Environ Health Insights (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed.There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant.

Methods: The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses.

Results: No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.

Conclusions: In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Vascular responsiveness. Baseline internal vascular diameter of the ventral tail artery (A) and ACh-induced recovery (vasodilation) following PHEN-induced vasoconstriction (B) in ventral tail arteries dissected from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 8/group/time point.
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f6-ehi-suppl.1-2014-063: Vascular responsiveness. Baseline internal vascular diameter of the ventral tail artery (A) and ACh-induced recovery (vasodilation) following PHEN-induced vasoconstriction (B) in ventral tail arteries dissected from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 8/group/time point.

Mentions: BP, MAP, and LVSP, both basal and in response to stimulation by NE and ISO, respectively, were not significantly altered following repeated exposure to COREXIT when compared to air controls (Fig. 5B and C). However, basal HR and HR responses to ISO were significantly increased one day following the last COREXIT exposure (Fig. 5A). By seven days post exposure, HR had returned to control levels and there were no significant differences in chronotropic responses upon stimulation with ISO when compared to air-exposed rats. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness in rats following repeated exposure to COREXIT when compared to air controls. The baseline internal diameter of the ventral tail artery (Fig. 6A) and the dose-dependent redilation of the artery to ACh after PHEN-induced vasoconstriction were similar in all groups (Fig. 6B).


Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

Roberts JR, Anderson SE, Kan H, Krajnak K, Thompson JA, Kenyon A, Goldsmith WT, McKinney W, Frazer DG, Jackson M, Fedan JS - Environ Health Insights (2015)

Vascular responsiveness. Baseline internal vascular diameter of the ventral tail artery (A) and ACh-induced recovery (vasodilation) following PHEN-induced vasoconstriction (B) in ventral tail arteries dissected from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 8/group/time point.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325826&req=5

f6-ehi-suppl.1-2014-063: Vascular responsiveness. Baseline internal vascular diameter of the ventral tail artery (A) and ACh-induced recovery (vasodilation) following PHEN-induced vasoconstriction (B) in ventral tail arteries dissected from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 8/group/time point.
Mentions: BP, MAP, and LVSP, both basal and in response to stimulation by NE and ISO, respectively, were not significantly altered following repeated exposure to COREXIT when compared to air controls (Fig. 5B and C). However, basal HR and HR responses to ISO were significantly increased one day following the last COREXIT exposure (Fig. 5A). By seven days post exposure, HR had returned to control levels and there were no significant differences in chronotropic responses upon stimulation with ISO when compared to air-exposed rats. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness in rats following repeated exposure to COREXIT when compared to air controls. The baseline internal diameter of the ventral tail artery (Fig. 6A) and the dose-dependent redilation of the artery to ACh after PHEN-induced vasoconstriction were similar in all groups (Fig. 6B).

Bottom Line: In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed.There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant.

Methods: The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses.

Results: No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.

Conclusions: In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus