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Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

Roberts JR, Anderson SE, Kan H, Krajnak K, Thompson JA, Kenyon A, Goldsmith WT, McKinney W, Frazer DG, Jackson M, Fedan JS - Environ Health Insights (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed.There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant.

Methods: The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses.

Results: No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.

Conclusions: In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cellular influx into the lung as an index of lung inflammation. Total AM (A), PMN cells (B), and lymphocytes (C) recovered by BAL from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 6/group/time point.
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f3-ehi-suppl.1-2014-063: Cellular influx into the lung as an index of lung inflammation. Total AM (A), PMN cells (B), and lymphocytes (C) recovered by BAL from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 6/group/time point.

Mentions: Repeated exposure to COREXIT did not result in alterations to baseline values of RL or Cdyn (Fig. 1A and B), nor were any significant changes observed in responses to inhaled MCh at any time point (Fig. 1C and D). LDH activity and albumin levels (Fig. 2) were reduced when compared to air-treated rats one day following the last COREXIT exposure; however, there were no significant differences by seven days following exposure. Increases in the inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1, MIP-2, and IL-6 were observed one day following the inhalation period, however, the increases were not significant and there were no differences in cytokine levels between treated and air control animals by day 7 (Table 1). Cells recovered from the lungs of rats exposed to COREXIT did not differ significantly from those of air controls (Fig. 3). AM accounted for the majority of cells infiltrating the lungs following exposure to COREXIT or air (Fig. 3A). Approximately twice as many PMN were present in the lungs of rats exposed to COREXIT one day following the last exposure (Fig. 3B); however, similar to the cytokine pattern, the difference was not significant when compared to controls. There were also no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes in the lungs of COREXIT-exposed rats when compared to those of air-treated controls (Fig. 3C). There was a nonsignificant increase (twofold) in ex vivo oxidant production by total phagocytes (AM and PMN) from COREXIT-exposed rats as indicated by PMA-stimulated CL (Fig. 4A); however, there were no significant differences in either PMA- or zymosan-stimulated oxidant production (Fig. 4) by phagocytes recovered from rats treated with COREXIT when compared to controls.


Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

Roberts JR, Anderson SE, Kan H, Krajnak K, Thompson JA, Kenyon A, Goldsmith WT, McKinney W, Frazer DG, Jackson M, Fedan JS - Environ Health Insights (2015)

Cellular influx into the lung as an index of lung inflammation. Total AM (A), PMN cells (B), and lymphocytes (C) recovered by BAL from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 6/group/time point.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325826&req=5

f3-ehi-suppl.1-2014-063: Cellular influx into the lung as an index of lung inflammation. Total AM (A), PMN cells (B), and lymphocytes (C) recovered by BAL from rats one and seven days post exposure to air or COREXIT (27 mg/m3 for five hours per day for nine work days).Note: Values are means ± SEMs; n = 6/group/time point.
Mentions: Repeated exposure to COREXIT did not result in alterations to baseline values of RL or Cdyn (Fig. 1A and B), nor were any significant changes observed in responses to inhaled MCh at any time point (Fig. 1C and D). LDH activity and albumin levels (Fig. 2) were reduced when compared to air-treated rats one day following the last COREXIT exposure; however, there were no significant differences by seven days following exposure. Increases in the inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1, MIP-2, and IL-6 were observed one day following the inhalation period, however, the increases were not significant and there were no differences in cytokine levels between treated and air control animals by day 7 (Table 1). Cells recovered from the lungs of rats exposed to COREXIT did not differ significantly from those of air controls (Fig. 3). AM accounted for the majority of cells infiltrating the lungs following exposure to COREXIT or air (Fig. 3A). Approximately twice as many PMN were present in the lungs of rats exposed to COREXIT one day following the last exposure (Fig. 3B); however, similar to the cytokine pattern, the difference was not significant when compared to controls. There were also no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes in the lungs of COREXIT-exposed rats when compared to those of air-treated controls (Fig. 3C). There was a nonsignificant increase (twofold) in ex vivo oxidant production by total phagocytes (AM and PMN) from COREXIT-exposed rats as indicated by PMA-stimulated CL (Fig. 4A); however, there were no significant differences in either PMA- or zymosan-stimulated oxidant production (Fig. 4) by phagocytes recovered from rats treated with COREXIT when compared to controls.

Bottom Line: In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed.There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant.

Methods: The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses.

Results: No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7.

Conclusions: In summary, acute repeated exposure to COREXIT EC9500A did not alter pulmonary function, lung injury/inflammation, systemic immune responses, or vascular tone, but did cause transient chronotropic effects on cardiac function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus