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She's a femme fatale: low-density larval development produces good disease vectors.

Juliano SA, Ribeiro GS, Maciel-de-Freitas R, Castro MG, Codeço C, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Lounibos LP - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2014)

Bottom Line: In the laboratory, longevity increases with size, then decreases at the largest sizes.Thus, our data indicate that uncrowded, low competition conditions for larvae produce the females that are most likely to be important vectors of dengue.More generally, ecological conditions, particularly crowding and intraspecific competition among larvae, are likely to affect vector-borne pathogen transmission in nature, in this case via effects on longevity of resulting adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Two hypotheses for how conditions for larval mosquitoes affect vectorial capacity make opposite predictions about the relationship of adult size and frequency of infection with vector-borne pathogens. Competition among larvae produces small adult females. The competition-susceptibility hypothesis postulates that small females are more susceptible to infection and predicts frequency of infection should decrease with size. The competition-longevity hypothesis postulates that small females have lower longevity and lower probability of becoming competent to transmit the pathogen and thus predicts frequency of infection should increase with size. We tested these hypotheses for Aedes aegypti in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a dengue outbreak. In the laboratory, longevity increases with size, then decreases at the largest sizes. For field-collected females, generalised linear mixed model comparisons showed that a model with a linear increase of frequency of dengue with size produced the best Akaike's information criterion with a correction for small sample sizes (AICc). Consensus prediction of three competing models indicated that frequency of infection increases monotonically with female size, consistent with the competition-longevity hypothesis. Site frequency of infection was not significantly related to site mean size of females. Thus, our data indicate that uncrowded, low competition conditions for larvae produce the females that are most likely to be important vectors of dengue. More generally, ecological conditions, particularly crowding and intraspecific competition among larvae, are likely to affect vector-borne pathogen transmission in nature, in this case via effects on longevity of resulting adults. Heterogeneity among individual vectors in likelihood of infection is a generally important outcome of ecological conditions impacting vectors as larvae.

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: predicted survivorship curves for adult female Aedesaegypti in the laboratory that are not infected with dengue (A) orinfected with dengue (B). Statistical analysis reported in the Results section.Plotted wing lengths were chosen to span the range of sizes of females includedin the experiment.
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f01: : predicted survivorship curves for adult female Aedesaegypti in the laboratory that are not infected with dengue (A) orinfected with dengue (B). Statistical analysis reported in the Results section.Plotted wing lengths were chosen to span the range of sizes of females includedin the experiment.

Mentions: Laboratory - Sizes of the 134 females used in the laboratory studyranged from 2.10-3.20 mm wing length, with a mean ± SE of 2.89 ± 0.01 mm. Infection withdengue significantly shortened the life of females [χ2 = 7.71, degrees offreedom (df) = 1, p = 0.0055], with a hazard ratio of control/infected of 0.560,indicating that controls had nearly half the hazard of death as infected individuals.Both wing length (χ2 = 4.06, df = 1, p = 0.0439) and (winglength)2 (χ2 = 4.81, df = 1, p = 0.0283) were significantlyrelated to the hazard of death. The linear term (± SE) was negative (-20.81 ± 10.30),indicating that hazard of death initially declines with adult size. The quadratic termwas positive (4.09 ± 1.90), indicating that hazard of death increases as larger sizesare reached. Thus this analysis describes a hazard function of size that issignificantly concave upward. Predicted survival curves for infected and uninfectedfemales of wing lengths = 2.10, 2.70 and 3.30 mm (Fig.1) indicated that longevity peaked at 2.70 mm and was actually least at 3.30mm.


She's a femme fatale: low-density larval development produces good disease vectors.

Juliano SA, Ribeiro GS, Maciel-de-Freitas R, Castro MG, Codeço C, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Lounibos LP - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2014)

: predicted survivorship curves for adult female Aedesaegypti in the laboratory that are not infected with dengue (A) orinfected with dengue (B). Statistical analysis reported in the Results section.Plotted wing lengths were chosen to span the range of sizes of females includedin the experiment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325623&req=5

f01: : predicted survivorship curves for adult female Aedesaegypti in the laboratory that are not infected with dengue (A) orinfected with dengue (B). Statistical analysis reported in the Results section.Plotted wing lengths were chosen to span the range of sizes of females includedin the experiment.
Mentions: Laboratory - Sizes of the 134 females used in the laboratory studyranged from 2.10-3.20 mm wing length, with a mean ± SE of 2.89 ± 0.01 mm. Infection withdengue significantly shortened the life of females [χ2 = 7.71, degrees offreedom (df) = 1, p = 0.0055], with a hazard ratio of control/infected of 0.560,indicating that controls had nearly half the hazard of death as infected individuals.Both wing length (χ2 = 4.06, df = 1, p = 0.0439) and (winglength)2 (χ2 = 4.81, df = 1, p = 0.0283) were significantlyrelated to the hazard of death. The linear term (± SE) was negative (-20.81 ± 10.30),indicating that hazard of death initially declines with adult size. The quadratic termwas positive (4.09 ± 1.90), indicating that hazard of death increases as larger sizesare reached. Thus this analysis describes a hazard function of size that issignificantly concave upward. Predicted survival curves for infected and uninfectedfemales of wing lengths = 2.10, 2.70 and 3.30 mm (Fig.1) indicated that longevity peaked at 2.70 mm and was actually least at 3.30mm.

Bottom Line: In the laboratory, longevity increases with size, then decreases at the largest sizes.Thus, our data indicate that uncrowded, low competition conditions for larvae produce the females that are most likely to be important vectors of dengue.More generally, ecological conditions, particularly crowding and intraspecific competition among larvae, are likely to affect vector-borne pathogen transmission in nature, in this case via effects on longevity of resulting adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Two hypotheses for how conditions for larval mosquitoes affect vectorial capacity make opposite predictions about the relationship of adult size and frequency of infection with vector-borne pathogens. Competition among larvae produces small adult females. The competition-susceptibility hypothesis postulates that small females are more susceptible to infection and predicts frequency of infection should decrease with size. The competition-longevity hypothesis postulates that small females have lower longevity and lower probability of becoming competent to transmit the pathogen and thus predicts frequency of infection should increase with size. We tested these hypotheses for Aedes aegypti in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a dengue outbreak. In the laboratory, longevity increases with size, then decreases at the largest sizes. For field-collected females, generalised linear mixed model comparisons showed that a model with a linear increase of frequency of dengue with size produced the best Akaike's information criterion with a correction for small sample sizes (AICc). Consensus prediction of three competing models indicated that frequency of infection increases monotonically with female size, consistent with the competition-longevity hypothesis. Site frequency of infection was not significantly related to site mean size of females. Thus, our data indicate that uncrowded, low competition conditions for larvae produce the females that are most likely to be important vectors of dengue. More generally, ecological conditions, particularly crowding and intraspecific competition among larvae, are likely to affect vector-borne pathogen transmission in nature, in this case via effects on longevity of resulting adults. Heterogeneity among individual vectors in likelihood of infection is a generally important outcome of ecological conditions impacting vectors as larvae.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus