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Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 expression of keratinocytes from patients with localized and disseminated dermatophytosis.

Oliveira CB, Vasconcellos C, Sakai-Valente NY, Sotto MN, Luiz FG, Belda Júnior W, Sousa Mda G, Benard G, Criado PR - Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (2015 Jan-Feb)

Bottom Line: A reduced expression of TLR4 in the lower and upper epidermis of both LD and DD patients was found compared to controls; TLR2 expression was preserved in the upper and lower epidermis of all three groups.As TLR4 signaling induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils recruitment, its reduced expression likely contributed to the lack of resolution of the infection and the consequent chronic nature of the dermatophytosis.As TLR2 expression acts to limit the inflammatory process and preserves the epidermal structure, its preserved expression may also contribute to the persistent infection and limited inflammation that are characteristic of dermatophytic infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
There are few studies on the role of innate immune response in dermatophytosis. An investigation was conducted to define the involvement of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in localized (LD) and disseminated (DD) dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum. Fifteen newly diagnosed patients, eight patients with LD and seven with DD, defined by involvement of at least three body segments were used in this study. Controls comprised twenty skin samples from healthy individuals undergoing plastic surgery. TLR2 and TLR4 were quantified in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. A reduced expression of TLR4 in the lower and upper epidermis of both LD and DD patients was found compared to controls; TLR2 expression was preserved in the upper and lower epidermis of all three groups. As TLR4 signaling induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils recruitment, its reduced expression likely contributed to the lack of resolution of the infection and the consequent chronic nature of the dermatophytosis. As TLR2 expression acts to limit the inflammatory process and preserves the epidermal structure, its preserved expression may also contribute to the persistent infection and limited inflammation that are characteristic of dermatophytic infections.

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TLR4 expression in unaffected (a) and affected(b) epidermis from an individual with localized dermatophytosisand in unaffected (c) and affected (d) epidermis froman individual with disseminated dermatophytosis. (e) shows TLR4expression in the epidermis of a healthy individual. Magnification:x200
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f02: TLR4 expression in unaffected (a) and affected(b) epidermis from an individual with localized dermatophytosisand in unaffected (c) and affected (d) epidermis froman individual with disseminated dermatophytosis. (e) shows TLR4expression in the epidermis of a healthy individual. Magnification:x200

Mentions: TLR4 expression was reduced in the upper epidermis of either LD or DDdermatophytosis patients, as compared with the control group (Fig. 3A). The TLR4 staining optical density indexwas 145 ± 22 in the controls, compared with 109 ± 9 in biopsies of LD patients and 110 ±15 of the DD patients (p < 0.001). Interestingly, TLR4 expression inunaffected skin in both dermatophytosis groups was similar to that in the respectiveaffected areas (LD: 109 ± 9; DD: 110 ± 7), and significantly reduced compared with thecontrol group (p < 0.001) (Fig.3A). There were no differences between individuals with LD and DD (Fig. 2a, 2b,2c, 2dand 2e).


Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 expression of keratinocytes from patients with localized and disseminated dermatophytosis.

Oliveira CB, Vasconcellos C, Sakai-Valente NY, Sotto MN, Luiz FG, Belda Júnior W, Sousa Mda G, Benard G, Criado PR - Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (2015 Jan-Feb)

TLR4 expression in unaffected (a) and affected(b) epidermis from an individual with localized dermatophytosisand in unaffected (c) and affected (d) epidermis froman individual with disseminated dermatophytosis. (e) shows TLR4expression in the epidermis of a healthy individual. Magnification:x200
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325524&req=5

f02: TLR4 expression in unaffected (a) and affected(b) epidermis from an individual with localized dermatophytosisand in unaffected (c) and affected (d) epidermis froman individual with disseminated dermatophytosis. (e) shows TLR4expression in the epidermis of a healthy individual. Magnification:x200
Mentions: TLR4 expression was reduced in the upper epidermis of either LD or DDdermatophytosis patients, as compared with the control group (Fig. 3A). The TLR4 staining optical density indexwas 145 ± 22 in the controls, compared with 109 ± 9 in biopsies of LD patients and 110 ±15 of the DD patients (p < 0.001). Interestingly, TLR4 expression inunaffected skin in both dermatophytosis groups was similar to that in the respectiveaffected areas (LD: 109 ± 9; DD: 110 ± 7), and significantly reduced compared with thecontrol group (p < 0.001) (Fig.3A). There were no differences between individuals with LD and DD (Fig. 2a, 2b,2c, 2dand 2e).

Bottom Line: A reduced expression of TLR4 in the lower and upper epidermis of both LD and DD patients was found compared to controls; TLR2 expression was preserved in the upper and lower epidermis of all three groups.As TLR4 signaling induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils recruitment, its reduced expression likely contributed to the lack of resolution of the infection and the consequent chronic nature of the dermatophytosis.As TLR2 expression acts to limit the inflammatory process and preserves the epidermal structure, its preserved expression may also contribute to the persistent infection and limited inflammation that are characteristic of dermatophytic infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
There are few studies on the role of innate immune response in dermatophytosis. An investigation was conducted to define the involvement of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in localized (LD) and disseminated (DD) dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum. Fifteen newly diagnosed patients, eight patients with LD and seven with DD, defined by involvement of at least three body segments were used in this study. Controls comprised twenty skin samples from healthy individuals undergoing plastic surgery. TLR2 and TLR4 were quantified in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. A reduced expression of TLR4 in the lower and upper epidermis of both LD and DD patients was found compared to controls; TLR2 expression was preserved in the upper and lower epidermis of all three groups. As TLR4 signaling induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils recruitment, its reduced expression likely contributed to the lack of resolution of the infection and the consequent chronic nature of the dermatophytosis. As TLR2 expression acts to limit the inflammatory process and preserves the epidermal structure, its preserved expression may also contribute to the persistent infection and limited inflammation that are characteristic of dermatophytic infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus