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Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

Paiva A, Casseb J - Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (2015 Jan-Feb)

Bottom Line: In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait.The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence.A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Hospital Universitário, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

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HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 among indigenous populations of North America and CentralAmerica. Based on the references from Table1.
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f02: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 among indigenous populations of North America and CentralAmerica. Based on the references from Table1.

Mentions: A previous study in blood donors had already demonstrated a rate of HTLVinfection of 0.72/1,000 in New Mexico (most cases of which were attributed to HTLV-2)and, in turn, a higher prevalence among American Indian blood donors (1.0%-1.6%) thanamong non-Hispanic white donors (0.009%-0.06%)65. In the United States, HTLV is endemic among the Navajo and Pueblo people of NewMexico and Seminole people of Florida, with HTLV-2 presenting a higher prevalence85,88 (Table 1 and Fig. 2). In Alaska, the prevalence of HTLV among native peoples is0.5% (two out of 380)34. This was confirmed as HTLV-1 in a subsequent study involving five other nativeindividuals seropositive for HTLV from various geographical areas of Alaska, one being ablood donor with ATL, one with HAM/TSP, one with a neurological disease characterized bygait disturbance and urinary incontinence, and one with Hodgkin disease; all subjectswith HTLV-1 had no risk factors for infection78.


Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

Paiva A, Casseb J - Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (2015 Jan-Feb)

HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 among indigenous populations of North America and CentralAmerica. Based on the references from Table1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325517&req=5

f02: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 among indigenous populations of North America and CentralAmerica. Based on the references from Table1.
Mentions: A previous study in blood donors had already demonstrated a rate of HTLVinfection of 0.72/1,000 in New Mexico (most cases of which were attributed to HTLV-2)and, in turn, a higher prevalence among American Indian blood donors (1.0%-1.6%) thanamong non-Hispanic white donors (0.009%-0.06%)65. In the United States, HTLV is endemic among the Navajo and Pueblo people of NewMexico and Seminole people of Florida, with HTLV-2 presenting a higher prevalence85,88 (Table 1 and Fig. 2). In Alaska, the prevalence of HTLV among native peoples is0.5% (two out of 380)34. This was confirmed as HTLV-1 in a subsequent study involving five other nativeindividuals seropositive for HTLV from various geographical areas of Alaska, one being ablood donor with ATL, one with HAM/TSP, one with a neurological disease characterized bygait disturbance and urinary incontinence, and one with Hodgkin disease; all subjectswith HTLV-1 had no risk factors for infection78.

Bottom Line: In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait.The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence.A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Hospital Universitário, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus