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Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

Paiva A, Casseb J - Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (2015 Jan-Feb)

Bottom Line: In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait.The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence.A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Hospital Universitário, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Origin of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the Americas. Based on the references 53,116, 120 and 128.
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f01: Origin of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the Americas. Based on the references 53,116, 120 and 128.

Mentions: Most of non-indigenous persons infected by HTLV-1 in the Americas haveprobably been infected by virus strains originating from the African slave trade duringthe post-Columbian period2,37,44,53,57,59,75,122,128,130 and, it is today accepted that HTLV-1 in the Americas has more than one source:through migration from Asia through the Bering Strait86,94,104,134 during the Paleolithic era; the trafficking of slaves during the colonial period2,53,122,128,130; and more recently, the Japanese immigration in the early 20th century(Fig. 1)79,127,128.


Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

Paiva A, Casseb J - Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (2015 Jan-Feb)

Origin of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the Americas. Based on the references 53,116, 120 and 128.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325517&req=5

f01: Origin of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the Americas. Based on the references 53,116, 120 and 128.
Mentions: Most of non-indigenous persons infected by HTLV-1 in the Americas haveprobably been infected by virus strains originating from the African slave trade duringthe post-Columbian period2,37,44,53,57,59,75,122,128,130 and, it is today accepted that HTLV-1 in the Americas has more than one source:through migration from Asia through the Bering Strait86,94,104,134 during the Paleolithic era; the trafficking of slaves during the colonial period2,53,122,128,130; and more recently, the Japanese immigration in the early 20th century(Fig. 1)79,127,128.

Bottom Line: In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait.The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence.A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Hospital Universitário, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus