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Transforming growth factor Beta family: insight into the role of growth factors in regulation of fracture healing biology and potential clinical applications.

Poniatowski ŁA, Wojdasiewicz P, Gasik R, Szukiewicz D - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Bottom Line: Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body.Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process.This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General and Experimental Pathology with Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology (CePT), Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 3c, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

TGF-β associated intracellular canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Perpendicular line indicates an inhibitory effect; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TβRI: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type I; TβRII: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type II; P: phosphate group; SARA: Smad anchor for receptor activation; Smad2/3: Smad family member 2/3; Smad6/7: Smad family member 6/7; Smad4: Smad family member 4.
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fig3: TGF-β associated intracellular canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Perpendicular line indicates an inhibitory effect; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TβRI: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type I; TβRII: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type II; P: phosphate group; SARA: Smad anchor for receptor activation; Smad2/3: Smad family member 2/3; Smad6/7: Smad family member 6/7; Smad4: Smad family member 4.

Mentions: Biological effects of homodimers, including TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, are visible in activation of similar signalling pathways and similar cellular effects [75, 76] (Figure 3). After TGF-β release from ECM, it interacts with a receptor complex forming a heterotetrameric combination containing two of each of type I (TβRI, TGFBR1) and type II (TβRII, TGFBR2) subunits [76–78].


Transforming growth factor Beta family: insight into the role of growth factors in regulation of fracture healing biology and potential clinical applications.

Poniatowski ŁA, Wojdasiewicz P, Gasik R, Szukiewicz D - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

TGF-β associated intracellular canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Perpendicular line indicates an inhibitory effect; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TβRI: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type I; TβRII: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type II; P: phosphate group; SARA: Smad anchor for receptor activation; Smad2/3: Smad family member 2/3; Smad6/7: Smad family member 6/7; Smad4: Smad family member 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325469&req=5

fig3: TGF-β associated intracellular canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Perpendicular line indicates an inhibitory effect; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TβRI: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type I; TβRII: transforming growth factor, beta receptor type II; P: phosphate group; SARA: Smad anchor for receptor activation; Smad2/3: Smad family member 2/3; Smad6/7: Smad family member 6/7; Smad4: Smad family member 4.
Mentions: Biological effects of homodimers, including TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, are visible in activation of similar signalling pathways and similar cellular effects [75, 76] (Figure 3). After TGF-β release from ECM, it interacts with a receptor complex forming a heterotetrameric combination containing two of each of type I (TβRI, TGFBR1) and type II (TβRII, TGFBR2) subunits [76–78].

Bottom Line: Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body.Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process.This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General and Experimental Pathology with Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology (CePT), Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 3c, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus