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The melanocyte lineage in development and disease.

Mort RL, Jackson IJ, Patton EE - Development (2015)

Bottom Line: Melanocyte development provides an excellent model for studying more complex developmental processes.In addition, work on chicken has provided important embryological and molecular insights, whereas studies in zebrafish have allowed live imaging as well as genetic and transgenic approaches.This cross-species approach is powerful and, as we review here, has resulted in a detailed understanding of melanocyte development and differentiation, melanocyte stem cells and the role of the melanocyte lineage in diseases such as melanoma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit and.

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Melanocyte stem cells in ageing and disease. (A) Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs; pink circles) associated with the hair follicle provide pigmented cells to the growing hair. These follicular MSCs reside in the bulge region of the hair follicle and are supported in a niche by hair follicle stem cells (blue). Differentiated melanocytes (black) reside at the bulb to pigment the growing hair. Aging or genotoxicity lead to the ectopic differentiation of MSCs in the follicular niche, resulting in a loss of the MSC pool and hence loss of pigmentation of the hair. This gives rise to grey hair, as illustrated in the image of a mouse (far right), in which genotoxic stress caused by ionizing radiation has induced hair greying [image courtesy of Emi Nishimura (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan)]. The follicular MSCs also act as a reservoir for epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo patients, such that melanocytes from the MSC population migrate (indicated by red arrows) to the skin. This results in the patches of pigmented skin associated with hair follicles that are observed in vitiligo patients, as illustrated in the image on the right. [Image from Grichnik (2008) with permission.] (B) MSCs (pink circles) have also been identified in the sweat glands of volar skin and can contribute to the epidermal melanocyte population (black). The sweat gland can also provide a niche for melanoma-initiating cells (black), which explains the ‘parallel ridge pattern’ of acral melanoma cells at the sweat gland [illustrated in the image on the far right; image from Saida et al. (2002) with permission]. Schematic images adapted from Nishimura (2011); Zabierowski et al. (2011).
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DEV106567F3: Melanocyte stem cells in ageing and disease. (A) Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs; pink circles) associated with the hair follicle provide pigmented cells to the growing hair. These follicular MSCs reside in the bulge region of the hair follicle and are supported in a niche by hair follicle stem cells (blue). Differentiated melanocytes (black) reside at the bulb to pigment the growing hair. Aging or genotoxicity lead to the ectopic differentiation of MSCs in the follicular niche, resulting in a loss of the MSC pool and hence loss of pigmentation of the hair. This gives rise to grey hair, as illustrated in the image of a mouse (far right), in which genotoxic stress caused by ionizing radiation has induced hair greying [image courtesy of Emi Nishimura (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan)]. The follicular MSCs also act as a reservoir for epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo patients, such that melanocytes from the MSC population migrate (indicated by red arrows) to the skin. This results in the patches of pigmented skin associated with hair follicles that are observed in vitiligo patients, as illustrated in the image on the right. [Image from Grichnik (2008) with permission.] (B) MSCs (pink circles) have also been identified in the sweat glands of volar skin and can contribute to the epidermal melanocyte population (black). The sweat gland can also provide a niche for melanoma-initiating cells (black), which explains the ‘parallel ridge pattern’ of acral melanoma cells at the sweat gland [illustrated in the image on the far right; image from Saida et al. (2002) with permission]. Schematic images adapted from Nishimura (2011); Zabierowski et al. (2011).

Mentions: Returning to mammalian melanocytes, once melanocyte development and migration are established, how do animals maintain, alter or regenerate pigmentation in adult life? Evidence from multiple species points to a reservoir of MSCs that can be called upon when needed to re-pigment the skin and/or hair (Fig. 3). The identification and potential manipulation of MSCs might hold therapeutic value for pigmentation disorders, wounding and melanoma.Fig. 3.


The melanocyte lineage in development and disease.

Mort RL, Jackson IJ, Patton EE - Development (2015)

Melanocyte stem cells in ageing and disease. (A) Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs; pink circles) associated with the hair follicle provide pigmented cells to the growing hair. These follicular MSCs reside in the bulge region of the hair follicle and are supported in a niche by hair follicle stem cells (blue). Differentiated melanocytes (black) reside at the bulb to pigment the growing hair. Aging or genotoxicity lead to the ectopic differentiation of MSCs in the follicular niche, resulting in a loss of the MSC pool and hence loss of pigmentation of the hair. This gives rise to grey hair, as illustrated in the image of a mouse (far right), in which genotoxic stress caused by ionizing radiation has induced hair greying [image courtesy of Emi Nishimura (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan)]. The follicular MSCs also act as a reservoir for epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo patients, such that melanocytes from the MSC population migrate (indicated by red arrows) to the skin. This results in the patches of pigmented skin associated with hair follicles that are observed in vitiligo patients, as illustrated in the image on the right. [Image from Grichnik (2008) with permission.] (B) MSCs (pink circles) have also been identified in the sweat glands of volar skin and can contribute to the epidermal melanocyte population (black). The sweat gland can also provide a niche for melanoma-initiating cells (black), which explains the ‘parallel ridge pattern’ of acral melanoma cells at the sweat gland [illustrated in the image on the far right; image from Saida et al. (2002) with permission]. Schematic images adapted from Nishimura (2011); Zabierowski et al. (2011).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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DEV106567F3: Melanocyte stem cells in ageing and disease. (A) Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs; pink circles) associated with the hair follicle provide pigmented cells to the growing hair. These follicular MSCs reside in the bulge region of the hair follicle and are supported in a niche by hair follicle stem cells (blue). Differentiated melanocytes (black) reside at the bulb to pigment the growing hair. Aging or genotoxicity lead to the ectopic differentiation of MSCs in the follicular niche, resulting in a loss of the MSC pool and hence loss of pigmentation of the hair. This gives rise to grey hair, as illustrated in the image of a mouse (far right), in which genotoxic stress caused by ionizing radiation has induced hair greying [image courtesy of Emi Nishimura (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan)]. The follicular MSCs also act as a reservoir for epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo patients, such that melanocytes from the MSC population migrate (indicated by red arrows) to the skin. This results in the patches of pigmented skin associated with hair follicles that are observed in vitiligo patients, as illustrated in the image on the right. [Image from Grichnik (2008) with permission.] (B) MSCs (pink circles) have also been identified in the sweat glands of volar skin and can contribute to the epidermal melanocyte population (black). The sweat gland can also provide a niche for melanoma-initiating cells (black), which explains the ‘parallel ridge pattern’ of acral melanoma cells at the sweat gland [illustrated in the image on the far right; image from Saida et al. (2002) with permission]. Schematic images adapted from Nishimura (2011); Zabierowski et al. (2011).
Mentions: Returning to mammalian melanocytes, once melanocyte development and migration are established, how do animals maintain, alter or regenerate pigmentation in adult life? Evidence from multiple species points to a reservoir of MSCs that can be called upon when needed to re-pigment the skin and/or hair (Fig. 3). The identification and potential manipulation of MSCs might hold therapeutic value for pigmentation disorders, wounding and melanoma.Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: Melanocyte development provides an excellent model for studying more complex developmental processes.In addition, work on chicken has provided important embryological and molecular insights, whereas studies in zebrafish have allowed live imaging as well as genetic and transgenic approaches.This cross-species approach is powerful and, as we review here, has resulted in a detailed understanding of melanocyte development and differentiation, melanocyte stem cells and the role of the melanocyte lineage in diseases such as melanoma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit and.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus