Limits...
The melanocyte lineage in development and disease.

Mort RL, Jackson IJ, Patton EE - Development (2015)

Bottom Line: Melanocyte development provides an excellent model for studying more complex developmental processes.In addition, work on chicken has provided important embryological and molecular insights, whereas studies in zebrafish have allowed live imaging as well as genetic and transgenic approaches.This cross-species approach is powerful and, as we review here, has resulted in a detailed understanding of melanocyte development and differentiation, melanocyte stem cells and the role of the melanocyte lineage in diseases such as melanoma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit and.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Development of the melanocyte lineage. (A) In mouse and chick embryos, early melanoblasts are derived from the neural crest and migrate dorsolaterally through the dermis between the somites and the developing epidermis. At later stages, they become epidermal, and a second wave is thought to differentiate from Schwann cell precursors associated with developing nerves, contributing to the adult melanocytes of the trunk, head and developing limbs. It is not clear whether the late population intercalates with or replaces the early population. (B) In zebrafish embryos, melanocytes migrate dorsolaterally and along nerves ventrally (purple) to form the embryonic pattern. Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs) are located at the DRG (marked by asterisk). Following metamorphosis or melanocyte ablation of the embryonic pattern, zebrafish glial-pigment cell progenitors proliferate and migrate along nerves to form the adult melanocyte stripes. MSCs specified in the developing embryo are the proposed source of metamorphic melanocytes of the adult. Adapted from Adameyko et al. (2009); Dooley et al. (2013); Dupin and Sommer (2012). NT, neural tube; N, notochord; dm, dermamyotome; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; S, somite; D, dorsal; V, ventral; L, lateral; M, medial.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325379&req=5

DEV106567F2: Development of the melanocyte lineage. (A) In mouse and chick embryos, early melanoblasts are derived from the neural crest and migrate dorsolaterally through the dermis between the somites and the developing epidermis. At later stages, they become epidermal, and a second wave is thought to differentiate from Schwann cell precursors associated with developing nerves, contributing to the adult melanocytes of the trunk, head and developing limbs. It is not clear whether the late population intercalates with or replaces the early population. (B) In zebrafish embryos, melanocytes migrate dorsolaterally and along nerves ventrally (purple) to form the embryonic pattern. Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs) are located at the DRG (marked by asterisk). Following metamorphosis or melanocyte ablation of the embryonic pattern, zebrafish glial-pigment cell progenitors proliferate and migrate along nerves to form the adult melanocyte stripes. MSCs specified in the developing embryo are the proposed source of metamorphic melanocytes of the adult. Adapted from Adameyko et al. (2009); Dooley et al. (2013); Dupin and Sommer (2012). NT, neural tube; N, notochord; dm, dermamyotome; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; S, somite; D, dorsal; V, ventral; L, lateral; M, medial.

Mentions: Melanoblast precursors delaminate at around E9 in mouse embryos and begin to express the specific markers Mitf, Dct and Pmel, and from E10.5 (Baxter and Pavan, 2003; Nakayama et al., 1998; Mackenzie et al., 1997) they begin to migrate dorsolaterally through the developing embryo (Fig. 2A). In chick embryos, neural crest migration in the trunk begins at Hamburger–Hamilton stage (HH) 12-13 (Loring and Erickson, 1987). Although ventral migration begins immediately, melanoblasts appear to pause in a region between the somites and the neural tube termed the migration staging area (MSA) before embarking on the dorsolateral pathway from stage 20 (Erickson et al., 1992; Weston, 1991; Wehrle-Haller and Weston, 1995). This dorsolateral migration can be visualised in chimaeras between pigmented and unpigmented mouse embryos, and in retrovirally rescued tyrosinase-expressing mosaic mice, which exhibit broad bands of colour extending dorsolaterally in the adult coat (Huszar et al., 1991; McLaren and Bowman, 1969; Mintz, 1967). The stripes exhibit sharp mid-dorsal separation, indicating that the two sides of the embryo are specified separately. These patterns have been thought to represent clones of migrating melanoblasts that originate from a small number of precursors, but there is a surprising amount of mixing at the axial level between adjacent melanoblast clones, making a prediction of the precise number of progenitors problematic (Wilkie et al., 2002).Fig. 2.


The melanocyte lineage in development and disease.

Mort RL, Jackson IJ, Patton EE - Development (2015)

Development of the melanocyte lineage. (A) In mouse and chick embryos, early melanoblasts are derived from the neural crest and migrate dorsolaterally through the dermis between the somites and the developing epidermis. At later stages, they become epidermal, and a second wave is thought to differentiate from Schwann cell precursors associated with developing nerves, contributing to the adult melanocytes of the trunk, head and developing limbs. It is not clear whether the late population intercalates with or replaces the early population. (B) In zebrafish embryos, melanocytes migrate dorsolaterally and along nerves ventrally (purple) to form the embryonic pattern. Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs) are located at the DRG (marked by asterisk). Following metamorphosis or melanocyte ablation of the embryonic pattern, zebrafish glial-pigment cell progenitors proliferate and migrate along nerves to form the adult melanocyte stripes. MSCs specified in the developing embryo are the proposed source of metamorphic melanocytes of the adult. Adapted from Adameyko et al. (2009); Dooley et al. (2013); Dupin and Sommer (2012). NT, neural tube; N, notochord; dm, dermamyotome; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; S, somite; D, dorsal; V, ventral; L, lateral; M, medial.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4325379&req=5

DEV106567F2: Development of the melanocyte lineage. (A) In mouse and chick embryos, early melanoblasts are derived from the neural crest and migrate dorsolaterally through the dermis between the somites and the developing epidermis. At later stages, they become epidermal, and a second wave is thought to differentiate from Schwann cell precursors associated with developing nerves, contributing to the adult melanocytes of the trunk, head and developing limbs. It is not clear whether the late population intercalates with or replaces the early population. (B) In zebrafish embryos, melanocytes migrate dorsolaterally and along nerves ventrally (purple) to form the embryonic pattern. Melanocyte stem cells (MSCs) are located at the DRG (marked by asterisk). Following metamorphosis or melanocyte ablation of the embryonic pattern, zebrafish glial-pigment cell progenitors proliferate and migrate along nerves to form the adult melanocyte stripes. MSCs specified in the developing embryo are the proposed source of metamorphic melanocytes of the adult. Adapted from Adameyko et al. (2009); Dooley et al. (2013); Dupin and Sommer (2012). NT, neural tube; N, notochord; dm, dermamyotome; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; S, somite; D, dorsal; V, ventral; L, lateral; M, medial.
Mentions: Melanoblast precursors delaminate at around E9 in mouse embryos and begin to express the specific markers Mitf, Dct and Pmel, and from E10.5 (Baxter and Pavan, 2003; Nakayama et al., 1998; Mackenzie et al., 1997) they begin to migrate dorsolaterally through the developing embryo (Fig. 2A). In chick embryos, neural crest migration in the trunk begins at Hamburger–Hamilton stage (HH) 12-13 (Loring and Erickson, 1987). Although ventral migration begins immediately, melanoblasts appear to pause in a region between the somites and the neural tube termed the migration staging area (MSA) before embarking on the dorsolateral pathway from stage 20 (Erickson et al., 1992; Weston, 1991; Wehrle-Haller and Weston, 1995). This dorsolateral migration can be visualised in chimaeras between pigmented and unpigmented mouse embryos, and in retrovirally rescued tyrosinase-expressing mosaic mice, which exhibit broad bands of colour extending dorsolaterally in the adult coat (Huszar et al., 1991; McLaren and Bowman, 1969; Mintz, 1967). The stripes exhibit sharp mid-dorsal separation, indicating that the two sides of the embryo are specified separately. These patterns have been thought to represent clones of migrating melanoblasts that originate from a small number of precursors, but there is a surprising amount of mixing at the axial level between adjacent melanoblast clones, making a prediction of the precise number of progenitors problematic (Wilkie et al., 2002).Fig. 2.

Bottom Line: Melanocyte development provides an excellent model for studying more complex developmental processes.In addition, work on chicken has provided important embryological and molecular insights, whereas studies in zebrafish have allowed live imaging as well as genetic and transgenic approaches.This cross-species approach is powerful and, as we review here, has resulted in a detailed understanding of melanocyte development and differentiation, melanocyte stem cells and the role of the melanocyte lineage in diseases such as melanoma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit and.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus