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Effect of exercise on hyperactivity, impulsivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of spontaneous hypertensive rats.

Cho HS, Baek DJ, Baek SS - J Exerc Nutrition Biochem (2014)

Bottom Line: Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine.Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively.We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurobehavioral disorder that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly believed that the symptoms of ADHD are closely associated with hypo-function of the dopamine system. Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine. Physical exercise is known to improve structural and functional impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the therapeutic effect of exercise on ADHD.

Methods: Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were evaluated by western blotting.

Results: The present results indicated that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity and impulsivity. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were increased in ADHD rats. Exercise alleviated hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD rats. Furthermore, dopamine D2 receptor expression in ADHD rats was also decreased by exercise.

Conclusion: We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of the behavioral tests for hyperactivity in the open-field task. The results are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean. (a) Hyperactivity in the pre-test, (b) Changes in hyperactivity during treatments; (●) Control group, (○) ADHD group, (■) ADHD & Exercise group, (□) ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. * represents P < 0.05 compared to Control group. # represents P < 0.05 compared to the ADHD group.
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f1-jenb-18-4-379: Results of the behavioral tests for hyperactivity in the open-field task. The results are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean. (a) Hyperactivity in the pre-test, (b) Changes in hyperactivity during treatments; (●) Control group, (○) ADHD group, (■) ADHD & Exercise group, (□) ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. * represents P < 0.05 compared to Control group. # represents P < 0.05 compared to the ADHD group.

Mentions: The levels of activity were determined by the open-field task performed 1 day prior to the initiation of the experiment. Activity scores were 11.22 ± 1.67 in the Control group, and 63.35 ± 1.02 in the ADHD group (Fig. 1a). ADHD rats were hyperactive, demonstrating symptoms of ADHD. The activity score on the open-field task was determined during the experimental period. The activity scores in the first task were 11.32 ± 1.53 in the Control group, 61.57 ± 3.01 in the ADHD group, 61.03 ± 2.96 in the ADHD & Exercise group, and 53.68 ± 3.96 in the ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. The activity scores in the second task were 9.68 ± 1.78 in the Control group, 56.58 ± 3.11 in the ADHD group, 58.63 ± 3.63 in the ADHD & Exercise group, and 49.52 ± 2.65 in the ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. The activity scores in the third task were 9.76 ± 1.48 in the Control group, 50.39 ± 2.67 in the ADHD group, 37.29 ± 1.62 in the ADHD & Exercise group, and 39.25 ± 2.91 in the ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group.


Effect of exercise on hyperactivity, impulsivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of spontaneous hypertensive rats.

Cho HS, Baek DJ, Baek SS - J Exerc Nutrition Biochem (2014)

Results of the behavioral tests for hyperactivity in the open-field task. The results are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean. (a) Hyperactivity in the pre-test, (b) Changes in hyperactivity during treatments; (●) Control group, (○) ADHD group, (■) ADHD & Exercise group, (□) ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. * represents P < 0.05 compared to Control group. # represents P < 0.05 compared to the ADHD group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4322029&req=5

f1-jenb-18-4-379: Results of the behavioral tests for hyperactivity in the open-field task. The results are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean. (a) Hyperactivity in the pre-test, (b) Changes in hyperactivity during treatments; (●) Control group, (○) ADHD group, (■) ADHD & Exercise group, (□) ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. * represents P < 0.05 compared to Control group. # represents P < 0.05 compared to the ADHD group.
Mentions: The levels of activity were determined by the open-field task performed 1 day prior to the initiation of the experiment. Activity scores were 11.22 ± 1.67 in the Control group, and 63.35 ± 1.02 in the ADHD group (Fig. 1a). ADHD rats were hyperactive, demonstrating symptoms of ADHD. The activity score on the open-field task was determined during the experimental period. The activity scores in the first task were 11.32 ± 1.53 in the Control group, 61.57 ± 3.01 in the ADHD group, 61.03 ± 2.96 in the ADHD & Exercise group, and 53.68 ± 3.96 in the ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. The activity scores in the second task were 9.68 ± 1.78 in the Control group, 56.58 ± 3.11 in the ADHD group, 58.63 ± 3.63 in the ADHD & Exercise group, and 49.52 ± 2.65 in the ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group. The activity scores in the third task were 9.76 ± 1.48 in the Control group, 50.39 ± 2.67 in the ADHD group, 37.29 ± 1.62 in the ADHD & Exercise group, and 39.25 ± 2.91 in the ADHD & Methylphenidate-treated group.

Bottom Line: Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine.Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively.We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurobehavioral disorder that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly believed that the symptoms of ADHD are closely associated with hypo-function of the dopamine system. Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine. Physical exercise is known to improve structural and functional impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the therapeutic effect of exercise on ADHD.

Methods: Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were evaluated by western blotting.

Results: The present results indicated that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity and impulsivity. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were increased in ADHD rats. Exercise alleviated hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD rats. Furthermore, dopamine D2 receptor expression in ADHD rats was also decreased by exercise.

Conclusion: We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus