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Supplementation with red palm oil increases β-carotene and vitamin A blood levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Sommerburg O, De Spirt S, Mattern A, Joachim C, Langhans CD, Nesaretnam K, Siems W, Stahl W, Mall MA - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients.Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged.Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Department of Pediatrics III, Children's Hospital, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany ; Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Change of plasma concentration of β-carotene and α-carotene in the blood of CF patients after eight weeks of supplementation with red palm oil. Values are given in μmol/L. Concentrations of both β-carotene and α-carotene were significantly increased (day 56) compared with baseline (day 0) (*P < 0.002, **P < 0.001).
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fig1: Change of plasma concentration of β-carotene and α-carotene in the blood of CF patients after eight weeks of supplementation with red palm oil. Values are given in μmol/L. Concentrations of both β-carotene and α-carotene were significantly increased (day 56) compared with baseline (day 0) (*P < 0.002, **P < 0.001).

Mentions: At baseline, plasma carotenoid concentrations of all 11 CF patients were measured in a low range. The data are in agreement with previous reports that showed decreased carotenoid plasma concentrations in patients with CF when compared to healthy controls [7, 13, 28]. CF patients are at risk of developing a low status of plasma carotenoids due to PI and consecutive malabsorption of lipid soluble micronutrients as well as increased antioxidant need due to chronic inflammation and chronic lung infection. A few previous studies demonstrated beneficial effects of β-carotene supplementation in CF patients [15–17]. Patients supplemented with β-carotene (1 mg/kg body weight over 24 weeks) showed decreased markers of oxidative stress and less pulmonary exacerbations compared to patients taking placebo [16]. These positive effects may be related to the antioxidant function of β-carotene as well as to its function as provitamin A. In third-world countries β-carotene is known to be a very important source of retinol. For that reason, a number of β-carotene supplementation studies were carried out in developing countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. One approach to supplement β-carotene safely in children and pregnant women was done by using RPO. In these studies it was shown that consumption of RPO enriched food led to increased plasma retinol levels [20, 21, 29]. In our pilot study, RPO was used for the first time to supplement β-carotene in CF patients. We show that using RPO in food over eight weeks led to increased plasma concentrations of β-carotene in all but one of our 11 CF patients (Figure 1). Further, α-carotene was increased in all 11 CF patients after RPO supplementation (Figure 1). The changes of β-carotene and α-carotene from baseline were statistically significant (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, resp.). Notably, previous supplementation studies in CF patients used β-carotene doses of 1 mg/kg body weight to raise plasma β-carotene levels [15–17]. It is therefore noteworthy that we obtained an increase in plasma β-carotene and retinol levels with an RPO supplementation regimen corresponding to β-carotene doses as little as ~1.5 mg total per day (range of 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight in our patients). These results suggest that RPO may represent an ideal source for β-carotene for CF patients with PI.


Supplementation with red palm oil increases β-carotene and vitamin A blood levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Sommerburg O, De Spirt S, Mattern A, Joachim C, Langhans CD, Nesaretnam K, Siems W, Stahl W, Mall MA - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Change of plasma concentration of β-carotene and α-carotene in the blood of CF patients after eight weeks of supplementation with red palm oil. Values are given in μmol/L. Concentrations of both β-carotene and α-carotene were significantly increased (day 56) compared with baseline (day 0) (*P < 0.002, **P < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321850&req=5

fig1: Change of plasma concentration of β-carotene and α-carotene in the blood of CF patients after eight weeks of supplementation with red palm oil. Values are given in μmol/L. Concentrations of both β-carotene and α-carotene were significantly increased (day 56) compared with baseline (day 0) (*P < 0.002, **P < 0.001).
Mentions: At baseline, plasma carotenoid concentrations of all 11 CF patients were measured in a low range. The data are in agreement with previous reports that showed decreased carotenoid plasma concentrations in patients with CF when compared to healthy controls [7, 13, 28]. CF patients are at risk of developing a low status of plasma carotenoids due to PI and consecutive malabsorption of lipid soluble micronutrients as well as increased antioxidant need due to chronic inflammation and chronic lung infection. A few previous studies demonstrated beneficial effects of β-carotene supplementation in CF patients [15–17]. Patients supplemented with β-carotene (1 mg/kg body weight over 24 weeks) showed decreased markers of oxidative stress and less pulmonary exacerbations compared to patients taking placebo [16]. These positive effects may be related to the antioxidant function of β-carotene as well as to its function as provitamin A. In third-world countries β-carotene is known to be a very important source of retinol. For that reason, a number of β-carotene supplementation studies were carried out in developing countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. One approach to supplement β-carotene safely in children and pregnant women was done by using RPO. In these studies it was shown that consumption of RPO enriched food led to increased plasma retinol levels [20, 21, 29]. In our pilot study, RPO was used for the first time to supplement β-carotene in CF patients. We show that using RPO in food over eight weeks led to increased plasma concentrations of β-carotene in all but one of our 11 CF patients (Figure 1). Further, α-carotene was increased in all 11 CF patients after RPO supplementation (Figure 1). The changes of β-carotene and α-carotene from baseline were statistically significant (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, resp.). Notably, previous supplementation studies in CF patients used β-carotene doses of 1 mg/kg body weight to raise plasma β-carotene levels [15–17]. It is therefore noteworthy that we obtained an increase in plasma β-carotene and retinol levels with an RPO supplementation regimen corresponding to β-carotene doses as little as ~1.5 mg total per day (range of 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight in our patients). These results suggest that RPO may represent an ideal source for β-carotene for CF patients with PI.

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients.Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged.Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Department of Pediatrics III, Children's Hospital, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany ; Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus