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Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.

Namatovu A, Tjørnehøj K, Belsham GJ, Dhikusooka MT, Wekesa SN, Muwanika VB, Siegismund HR, Ayebazibwe C - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively.This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2.The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Animal Disease Diagnostics and Epidemiology Centre, Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, P. O. Box 513, Entebbe, Uganda; Department of Biotechnical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT
To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

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Neighbor-joining phylogeny tree based on serotype A FMDV VP1 coding sequences.The two 2013 Ugandan outbreak FMDV sequences are marked with asterisks (*), and K35/1980** and K5/1980** are the current serotype A virus vaccine strains produced in Kenya and last used in Uganda in 2002. Bootstrap values greater than 50% are marked on the tree. Two of the three global topotypes within serotype A (Africa and Asia) are indicated, as are some of the African genotypes found in Eastern Africa (G-I, G-IV and G- VII). The topotype Asia serotype A FMD viruses were used to out root the tree.
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pone.0114811.g002: Neighbor-joining phylogeny tree based on serotype A FMDV VP1 coding sequences.The two 2013 Ugandan outbreak FMDV sequences are marked with asterisks (*), and K35/1980** and K5/1980** are the current serotype A virus vaccine strains produced in Kenya and last used in Uganda in 2002. Bootstrap values greater than 50% are marked on the tree. Two of the three global topotypes within serotype A (Africa and Asia) are indicated, as are some of the African genotypes found in Eastern Africa (G-I, G-IV and G- VII). The topotype Asia serotype A FMD viruses were used to out root the tree.

Mentions: Assessment of phylogenetic relationships using selected, genotype-defined serotype A FMDV isolates (Table 1) showed that the VP1 sequences of the Wakiso strains (U74/2013 and U75/2013) clustered with other strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-I) (Fig. 2). The two Wakiso strains had 100% nt identity with each other within the VP1 coding region and so had the same predicted amino acid sequences (Fig. 3). The Wakiso viruses had pairwise nt identity of 93% with both K3/2013 and K148/12 Kenyan isolates and amino acid (aa) identity of 93% and 92% for K3/2013 and K148/12 respectively. Thus they belonged to the same lineage but were in different sub-lineages [37–39]. The Wakiso sequences had pairwise nt identity of 82% (521/633) and 82% (517/633), and pairwise aa identity of 87% and 89% (Fig. 3), with the K5/1980 (Africa (G-I)) and K35/1980 (Africa (G-VII)) vaccine strains currently produced in Kenya, respectively [40]. Hence, based on a cut off of > 15% nt difference in the VP1 coding region of FMDV (non-SAT serotypes) for separating genotypes [39, 41], these viruses belonged to different genotypes than both the current Kenyan vaccine strains.


Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.

Namatovu A, Tjørnehøj K, Belsham GJ, Dhikusooka MT, Wekesa SN, Muwanika VB, Siegismund HR, Ayebazibwe C - PLoS ONE (2015)

Neighbor-joining phylogeny tree based on serotype A FMDV VP1 coding sequences.The two 2013 Ugandan outbreak FMDV sequences are marked with asterisks (*), and K35/1980** and K5/1980** are the current serotype A virus vaccine strains produced in Kenya and last used in Uganda in 2002. Bootstrap values greater than 50% are marked on the tree. Two of the three global topotypes within serotype A (Africa and Asia) are indicated, as are some of the African genotypes found in Eastern Africa (G-I, G-IV and G- VII). The topotype Asia serotype A FMD viruses were used to out root the tree.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321839&req=5

pone.0114811.g002: Neighbor-joining phylogeny tree based on serotype A FMDV VP1 coding sequences.The two 2013 Ugandan outbreak FMDV sequences are marked with asterisks (*), and K35/1980** and K5/1980** are the current serotype A virus vaccine strains produced in Kenya and last used in Uganda in 2002. Bootstrap values greater than 50% are marked on the tree. Two of the three global topotypes within serotype A (Africa and Asia) are indicated, as are some of the African genotypes found in Eastern Africa (G-I, G-IV and G- VII). The topotype Asia serotype A FMD viruses were used to out root the tree.
Mentions: Assessment of phylogenetic relationships using selected, genotype-defined serotype A FMDV isolates (Table 1) showed that the VP1 sequences of the Wakiso strains (U74/2013 and U75/2013) clustered with other strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-I) (Fig. 2). The two Wakiso strains had 100% nt identity with each other within the VP1 coding region and so had the same predicted amino acid sequences (Fig. 3). The Wakiso viruses had pairwise nt identity of 93% with both K3/2013 and K148/12 Kenyan isolates and amino acid (aa) identity of 93% and 92% for K3/2013 and K148/12 respectively. Thus they belonged to the same lineage but were in different sub-lineages [37–39]. The Wakiso sequences had pairwise nt identity of 82% (521/633) and 82% (517/633), and pairwise aa identity of 87% and 89% (Fig. 3), with the K5/1980 (Africa (G-I)) and K35/1980 (Africa (G-VII)) vaccine strains currently produced in Kenya, respectively [40]. Hence, based on a cut off of > 15% nt difference in the VP1 coding region of FMDV (non-SAT serotypes) for separating genotypes [39, 41], these viruses belonged to different genotypes than both the current Kenyan vaccine strains.

Bottom Line: Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively.This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2.The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Animal Disease Diagnostics and Epidemiology Centre, Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, P. O. Box 513, Entebbe, Uganda; Department of Biotechnical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT
To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus