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Functional activation and effective connectivity differences in adolescent marijuana users performing a simulated gambling task.

Acheson A, Ray KL, Hines CS, Li K, Dawes MA, Mathias CW, Dougherty DM, Laird AR - J Addict (2015)

Bottom Line: Across all participants, "Wins" and "Losses" were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations.Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during "Wins" and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during "Losses." Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both "Wins" and "Losses." However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the "Losses" condition.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA ; Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

ABSTRACT
Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week) and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, "Wins" and "Losses" were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during "Wins" and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during "Losses." Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both "Wins" and "Losses." However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the "Losses" condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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Mentions: Across all participants, “Wins” were associated with large, widespread activations with peaks in the left cingulate, left superior frontal, right inferior frontal, and left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral declive (Table 3, Figure 1). “Losses” were similarly associated with large activations that peaked in the right middle frontal, cingulate, and middle occipital gyrus and left declive (Table 3, Figure 1). Within these regions, marijuana users had greater activity bilaterally in the middle frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and in the right middle frontal gyrus, right posterior and anterior cingulate, left insula, and bilateral claustrum and declive during “Losses” (Table 4, Figure 1). Controls did not show greater activity than users across either of the task conditions.


Functional activation and effective connectivity differences in adolescent marijuana users performing a simulated gambling task.

Acheson A, Ray KL, Hines CS, Li K, Dawes MA, Mathias CW, Dougherty DM, Laird AR - J Addict (2015)

© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321681&req=5

Mentions: Across all participants, “Wins” were associated with large, widespread activations with peaks in the left cingulate, left superior frontal, right inferior frontal, and left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral declive (Table 3, Figure 1). “Losses” were similarly associated with large activations that peaked in the right middle frontal, cingulate, and middle occipital gyrus and left declive (Table 3, Figure 1). Within these regions, marijuana users had greater activity bilaterally in the middle frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and in the right middle frontal gyrus, right posterior and anterior cingulate, left insula, and bilateral claustrum and declive during “Losses” (Table 4, Figure 1). Controls did not show greater activity than users across either of the task conditions.

Bottom Line: Across all participants, "Wins" and "Losses" were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations.Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during "Wins" and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during "Losses." Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both "Wins" and "Losses." However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the "Losses" condition.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA ; Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

ABSTRACT
Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week) and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, "Wins" and "Losses" were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during "Wins" and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during "Losses." Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both "Wins" and "Losses." However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the "Losses" condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus