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The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD).

Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Hadi TM, Salman A, Vasuki V - Clin Ophthalmol (2015)

Bottom Line: Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens.Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides.Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

ABSTRACT
To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green). During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal) green iris or (diseased) green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna) wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Acute angle-closure glaucoma.Notes: Image courtesy of Allan Bank, Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
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f1-opth-9-207: Acute angle-closure glaucoma.Notes: Image courtesy of Allan Bank, Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

Mentions: The last criterion, the presence of a glaucous pupillary hue, may surprise the reader. Examination of pupillary hue is simply not part of present-day ophthalmic training for the evaluation of angle closure. We have better tools, including ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and tonometry. But many early descriptions of glaucoma reported a greenish hue to the pupil. Historians have not agreed on the explanation for this green color. It has been suggested that examination with candle light was responsible.4 An alternative explanation involves deposition of “blood pigments” in the lens epithelium following intraocular hemorrhage.5 We propose that angle closure glaucoma might explain many cases of the green pupil, as seen in photographs of this disorder (Figures 1–4).6–11 The green color is seen due to the mid-dilated pupil exposing the cataractous lens. The lessening of the greenish hue with lowering of the intraocular pressure7 suggests a contribution from other factors, such as corneal edema.


The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD).

Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Hadi TM, Salman A, Vasuki V - Clin Ophthalmol (2015)

Acute angle-closure glaucoma.Notes: Image courtesy of Allan Bank, Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321651&req=5

f1-opth-9-207: Acute angle-closure glaucoma.Notes: Image courtesy of Allan Bank, Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Mentions: The last criterion, the presence of a glaucous pupillary hue, may surprise the reader. Examination of pupillary hue is simply not part of present-day ophthalmic training for the evaluation of angle closure. We have better tools, including ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and tonometry. But many early descriptions of glaucoma reported a greenish hue to the pupil. Historians have not agreed on the explanation for this green color. It has been suggested that examination with candle light was responsible.4 An alternative explanation involves deposition of “blood pigments” in the lens epithelium following intraocular hemorrhage.5 We propose that angle closure glaucoma might explain many cases of the green pupil, as seen in photographs of this disorder (Figures 1–4).6–11 The green color is seen due to the mid-dilated pupil exposing the cataractous lens. The lessening of the greenish hue with lowering of the intraocular pressure7 suggests a contribution from other factors, such as corneal edema.

Bottom Line: Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens.Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides.Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

ABSTRACT
To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green). During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal) green iris or (diseased) green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna) wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus