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Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury.

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly.Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited.Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Formation of silica network with tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor. Tetramethyl orthosilicate undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of an acidic or basic catalyst followed by condensation with another silica molecule. The formation and size of silica nanoparticles is dependent on controlling the rate of both steps.
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f7-ijn-10-923: Formation of silica network with tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor. Tetramethyl orthosilicate undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of an acidic or basic catalyst followed by condensation with another silica molecule. The formation and size of silica nanoparticles is dependent on controlling the rate of both steps.

Mentions: Silica nanoparticles can be prepared and functionalized in various ways. The starting material, or precursor, is generally a small silicate, such as tetramethylorthosilicate or tetraethylorthosilicate. Upon addition of an acid or base, the precursor hydrolyzes and eventually condenses to form a silica network at room temperature (Figure 7). Although many reaction types exist, many of these stem from the Stöber method published in 1968.102 The method requires use of a light alcohol (methanol or ethanol) and ammonium hydroxide for catalysis.102 A common variation on this method includes the water-in-oil microemulsion, which uses a nonmiscible solvent (an alkane) and a surfactant.133 Other reagents explored include an array of bases, solvents, and even templates for silica nucleation. The templates are usually an organic salt, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, which creates a surfactant layer for nanoparticle nucleation in the two-solvent system. In a later step, though, the template must be removed to create the silica shell structure. Because the template is usually a salt, it is removed using strongly acidified alcohol, which adds an additional step to the overall synthesis. A similar method for nucleation has been employed to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with silica.11 Depending on the various reaction conditions, the pore size, surface area, size, and shape of the particles will change.101,134–137 Starting material concentration, catalyst concentration, and the solvent system also play an important role in the silica formation.134,138


Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury.

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Formation of silica network with tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor. Tetramethyl orthosilicate undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of an acidic or basic catalyst followed by condensation with another silica molecule. The formation and size of silica nanoparticles is dependent on controlling the rate of both steps.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321603&req=5

f7-ijn-10-923: Formation of silica network with tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor. Tetramethyl orthosilicate undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of an acidic or basic catalyst followed by condensation with another silica molecule. The formation and size of silica nanoparticles is dependent on controlling the rate of both steps.
Mentions: Silica nanoparticles can be prepared and functionalized in various ways. The starting material, or precursor, is generally a small silicate, such as tetramethylorthosilicate or tetraethylorthosilicate. Upon addition of an acid or base, the precursor hydrolyzes and eventually condenses to form a silica network at room temperature (Figure 7). Although many reaction types exist, many of these stem from the Stöber method published in 1968.102 The method requires use of a light alcohol (methanol or ethanol) and ammonium hydroxide for catalysis.102 A common variation on this method includes the water-in-oil microemulsion, which uses a nonmiscible solvent (an alkane) and a surfactant.133 Other reagents explored include an array of bases, solvents, and even templates for silica nucleation. The templates are usually an organic salt, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, which creates a surfactant layer for nanoparticle nucleation in the two-solvent system. In a later step, though, the template must be removed to create the silica shell structure. Because the template is usually a salt, it is removed using strongly acidified alcohol, which adds an additional step to the overall synthesis. A similar method for nucleation has been employed to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with silica.11 Depending on the various reaction conditions, the pore size, surface area, size, and shape of the particles will change.101,134–137 Starting material concentration, catalyst concentration, and the solvent system also play an important role in the silica formation.134,138

Bottom Line: Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly.Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited.Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus