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Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury.

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly.Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited.Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Glutathione. The thiol (-SH) group contributes to its antioxidative properties. The body naturally controls the production and reduction of glutathione from its oxidized state. In cases of severe oxidative stress, the reduction occurs too slowly for cells to overcome the assault of reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species.
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f5-ijn-10-923: Glutathione. The thiol (-SH) group contributes to its antioxidative properties. The body naturally controls the production and reduction of glutathione from its oxidized state. In cases of severe oxidative stress, the reduction occurs too slowly for cells to overcome the assault of reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species.

Mentions: A seemingly easy approach for improving the body’s stores of antioxidants includes glutathione supplementation (Figure 5). The molecule is made from cysteine, glycine, and glutamate, and its antioxidant properties stem from the nucleophilic thiol group of the cysteine. Oxidative species are electrophilic and the extra valence electrons of the thiol group reduce the oxidative species and create water in the process. In other words, the antioxidant is oxidized rather than allowing essential parts of the cell to be oxidized. Unfortunately, orally administered glutathione itself is poorly absorbed.68 Studies of glutathione levels have found that it forms an equilibrium with its amino acid components through synthesis of glutathione and uptake of cysteine.69,70 To increase glutathione levels, rather than absorbing glutathione, increasing the uptake of its amino acid components shifts the equilibrium toward synthesis of glutathione.


Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury.

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Glutathione. The thiol (-SH) group contributes to its antioxidative properties. The body naturally controls the production and reduction of glutathione from its oxidized state. In cases of severe oxidative stress, the reduction occurs too slowly for cells to overcome the assault of reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321603&req=5

f5-ijn-10-923: Glutathione. The thiol (-SH) group contributes to its antioxidative properties. The body naturally controls the production and reduction of glutathione from its oxidized state. In cases of severe oxidative stress, the reduction occurs too slowly for cells to overcome the assault of reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species.
Mentions: A seemingly easy approach for improving the body’s stores of antioxidants includes glutathione supplementation (Figure 5). The molecule is made from cysteine, glycine, and glutamate, and its antioxidant properties stem from the nucleophilic thiol group of the cysteine. Oxidative species are electrophilic and the extra valence electrons of the thiol group reduce the oxidative species and create water in the process. In other words, the antioxidant is oxidized rather than allowing essential parts of the cell to be oxidized. Unfortunately, orally administered glutathione itself is poorly absorbed.68 Studies of glutathione levels have found that it forms an equilibrium with its amino acid components through synthesis of glutathione and uptake of cysteine.69,70 To increase glutathione levels, rather than absorbing glutathione, increasing the uptake of its amino acid components shifts the equilibrium toward synthesis of glutathione.

Bottom Line: Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly.Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited.Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus