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Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury.

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly.Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited.Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of the calpain-calpastatin molecular mechanisms in a damaged cell. Calcium influx causes mass activation of calpain, which cleaves protein substrates and regulators of its inhibitor, calpastatin. An efficient delivery of calpastatin or other calpain inhibitors may hinder the damage caused by the extensive activation of calpain after injury. Calpain may also serve as a protein target for nanomedical systems. Cell is not drawn to scale. For a review of explored calpain inhibitors, see Donkor.62
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f4-ijn-10-923: Example of the calpain-calpastatin molecular mechanisms in a damaged cell. Calcium influx causes mass activation of calpain, which cleaves protein substrates and regulators of its inhibitor, calpastatin. An efficient delivery of calpastatin or other calpain inhibitors may hinder the damage caused by the extensive activation of calpain after injury. Calpain may also serve as a protein target for nanomedical systems. Cell is not drawn to scale. For a review of explored calpain inhibitors, see Donkor.62

Mentions: Calpain expression has been implicated in different disease states and become a therapeutic target because of its role in disease states, apoptosis, and, mainly, necrosis.50–55 In damaged neuronal tissue, large influxes of calcium can cause widespread activation of calpains. In these states, its natural inhibitor, calpastatin, is underexpressed, leading to an imbalance of calpain activity (Figure 4).56 Additionally, calpastatin specifically inhibits calpain.57 Various efforts have been made to create new calpain inhibitors, but they often target other proteases as well.58–62 Calpeptin, a short peptide, for example, targets both forms of calpain very well, but it also inhibits papain, although at higher concentrations.59


Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury.

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Example of the calpain-calpastatin molecular mechanisms in a damaged cell. Calcium influx causes mass activation of calpain, which cleaves protein substrates and regulators of its inhibitor, calpastatin. An efficient delivery of calpastatin or other calpain inhibitors may hinder the damage caused by the extensive activation of calpain after injury. Calpain may also serve as a protein target for nanomedical systems. Cell is not drawn to scale. For a review of explored calpain inhibitors, see Donkor.62
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321603&req=5

f4-ijn-10-923: Example of the calpain-calpastatin molecular mechanisms in a damaged cell. Calcium influx causes mass activation of calpain, which cleaves protein substrates and regulators of its inhibitor, calpastatin. An efficient delivery of calpastatin or other calpain inhibitors may hinder the damage caused by the extensive activation of calpain after injury. Calpain may also serve as a protein target for nanomedical systems. Cell is not drawn to scale. For a review of explored calpain inhibitors, see Donkor.62
Mentions: Calpain expression has been implicated in different disease states and become a therapeutic target because of its role in disease states, apoptosis, and, mainly, necrosis.50–55 In damaged neuronal tissue, large influxes of calcium can cause widespread activation of calpains. In these states, its natural inhibitor, calpastatin, is underexpressed, leading to an imbalance of calpain activity (Figure 4).56 Additionally, calpastatin specifically inhibits calpain.57 Various efforts have been made to create new calpain inhibitors, but they often target other proteases as well.58–62 Calpeptin, a short peptide, for example, targets both forms of calpain very well, but it also inhibits papain, although at higher concentrations.59

Bottom Line: Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly.Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited.Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus