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Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories.

Yacoby A, Dudai Y, Mendelsohn A - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined.In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase.Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories.

No MeSH data available.


Experimental design. Participants from all three groups watched a movie (movie 1) and were subsequently tested on their memory of it (test 1). On day 2, participants of the Manipulation and Delayed Manipulation Groups were provided with reminders regarding scenes from movie 1, to which they were asked to rate their feeling of knowing (FOK). Immediately after the reminder phase (Manipulation Group) or on day 3 (Delayed Manipulation Groups) or devoid of the reminder (No Reminder Group) participants were presented with a second movie (movie 2) and tested on it. Finally, on day 4, all participants were tested again for their memory of movies 1 and 2 (test 2).
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Figure 1: Experimental design. Participants from all three groups watched a movie (movie 1) and were subsequently tested on their memory of it (test 1). On day 2, participants of the Manipulation and Delayed Manipulation Groups were provided with reminders regarding scenes from movie 1, to which they were asked to rate their feeling of knowing (FOK). Immediately after the reminder phase (Manipulation Group) or on day 3 (Delayed Manipulation Groups) or devoid of the reminder (No Reminder Group) participants were presented with a second movie (movie 2) and tested on it. Finally, on day 4, all participants were tested again for their memory of movies 1 and 2 (test 2).

Mentions: The experimental protocol spanned 4 days, each starting with written instructions explaining the tasks at hand (see Figure 1 for experimental scheme). On Day 1, all participants watched one of two Hebrew speaking documentary films on a computer screen supplemented with earphones (movie A, 5 min, n = 38; movie B, 7 min, n = 39). Both films depicted non-dramatic, emotionally neutral content, and included several scenes within the context of a central theme. One movie portrayed a news interview with a martial arts expert, who explained and demonstrated self-defense techniques. The other movie involved a job interview taken by two young men, displaying different interviewer prototypes. The movie (first episode) was presented three times intercalated with 1-min displays of tranquil nature scenes. Five minutes after the last presentation, memory performance for the learned movie was tested using a computerized questionnaire, in which 40 questions taxed occurrences of scenes from the movie (test 1). The questions probed memory for details about specific scenes or characters, such as: “What does Jeanne take with her to the interview?” or “What are Joe's expectations of the proposed job?” Four possible answers were presented for each question, from which only one was correct. Responses were provided by clicking A–D on the keyboard. After replying to each question, participants rated their confidence level regarding the perceived correctness of their response by pointing with the computer mouse on a visual-analog scale (VAS) presented on screen spanning continuously from low to high with 5 intermediate ticks. No feedback was provided to participants about their response.


Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories.

Yacoby A, Dudai Y, Mendelsohn A - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Experimental design. Participants from all three groups watched a movie (movie 1) and were subsequently tested on their memory of it (test 1). On day 2, participants of the Manipulation and Delayed Manipulation Groups were provided with reminders regarding scenes from movie 1, to which they were asked to rate their feeling of knowing (FOK). Immediately after the reminder phase (Manipulation Group) or on day 3 (Delayed Manipulation Groups) or devoid of the reminder (No Reminder Group) participants were presented with a second movie (movie 2) and tested on it. Finally, on day 4, all participants were tested again for their memory of movies 1 and 2 (test 2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321599&req=5

Figure 1: Experimental design. Participants from all three groups watched a movie (movie 1) and were subsequently tested on their memory of it (test 1). On day 2, participants of the Manipulation and Delayed Manipulation Groups were provided with reminders regarding scenes from movie 1, to which they were asked to rate their feeling of knowing (FOK). Immediately after the reminder phase (Manipulation Group) or on day 3 (Delayed Manipulation Groups) or devoid of the reminder (No Reminder Group) participants were presented with a second movie (movie 2) and tested on it. Finally, on day 4, all participants were tested again for their memory of movies 1 and 2 (test 2).
Mentions: The experimental protocol spanned 4 days, each starting with written instructions explaining the tasks at hand (see Figure 1 for experimental scheme). On Day 1, all participants watched one of two Hebrew speaking documentary films on a computer screen supplemented with earphones (movie A, 5 min, n = 38; movie B, 7 min, n = 39). Both films depicted non-dramatic, emotionally neutral content, and included several scenes within the context of a central theme. One movie portrayed a news interview with a martial arts expert, who explained and demonstrated self-defense techniques. The other movie involved a job interview taken by two young men, displaying different interviewer prototypes. The movie (first episode) was presented three times intercalated with 1-min displays of tranquil nature scenes. Five minutes after the last presentation, memory performance for the learned movie was tested using a computerized questionnaire, in which 40 questions taxed occurrences of scenes from the movie (test 1). The questions probed memory for details about specific scenes or characters, such as: “What does Jeanne take with her to the interview?” or “What are Joe's expectations of the proposed job?” Four possible answers were presented for each question, from which only one was correct. Responses were provided by clicking A–D on the keyboard. After replying to each question, participants rated their confidence level regarding the perceived correctness of their response by pointing with the computer mouse on a visual-analog scale (VAS) presented on screen spanning continuously from low to high with 5 intermediate ticks. No feedback was provided to participants about their response.

Bottom Line: The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined.In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase.Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories.

No MeSH data available.