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Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals.

Righetti L, Nylén A, Rosander K, Ijspeert AJ - Front Neurol (2015)

Bottom Line: We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants.Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements.Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Autonomous Motion Department, Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems , Tübingen , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crawling on hands and knees is an early pattern of human infant locomotion, which offers an interesting way of studying quadrupedalism in one of its simplest form. We investigate how crawling human infants compare to other quadruped mammals, especially primates. We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants. Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements. Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion. However, there are important differences compared to primates, such as the choice of a lateral-sequence walking gait, which is similar to most non-primate mammals and the relatively stiff elbows during stance as opposed to the quite compliant gaits of primates. These finding raise the question of the role of both the mechanical structure of the body and neural control on the determination of these characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cycle frequency, 1/stance duration, and 1/swing duration as a function of the speed of locomotion for all subjects: ● for infant A, ○ for B, ♦ for C, ◇ for D, ■ for E, □ for F, and × for G. Regression lines are also showed. The strong linear correlation between locomotion speed and cycle frequency (resp. 1/stance duration) is noticeable.
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Figure 3: Cycle frequency, 1/stance duration, and 1/swing duration as a function of the speed of locomotion for all subjects: ● for infant A, ○ for B, ♦ for C, ◇ for D, ■ for E, □ for F, and × for G. Regression lines are also showed. The strong linear correlation between locomotion speed and cycle frequency (resp. 1/stance duration) is noticeable.

Mentions: The crawling velocity is estimated from the positions of the markers located on the spine. Figure 3 shows the cycle frequency, 1/stance duration, and 1/swing duration as a function of the velocity. There is a strong linear relation between the frequency of the cycle and the locomotion speed (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). There is also a strong liner relation between the inverse of the stance duration and locomotion speed (r = 0.82, p < 0.001). No significant correlation between the swing duration and locomotion was found (r = 0.11, p = 0.34).


Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals.

Righetti L, Nylén A, Rosander K, Ijspeert AJ - Front Neurol (2015)

Cycle frequency, 1/stance duration, and 1/swing duration as a function of the speed of locomotion for all subjects: ● for infant A, ○ for B, ♦ for C, ◇ for D, ■ for E, □ for F, and × for G. Regression lines are also showed. The strong linear correlation between locomotion speed and cycle frequency (resp. 1/stance duration) is noticeable.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321575&req=5

Figure 3: Cycle frequency, 1/stance duration, and 1/swing duration as a function of the speed of locomotion for all subjects: ● for infant A, ○ for B, ♦ for C, ◇ for D, ■ for E, □ for F, and × for G. Regression lines are also showed. The strong linear correlation between locomotion speed and cycle frequency (resp. 1/stance duration) is noticeable.
Mentions: The crawling velocity is estimated from the positions of the markers located on the spine. Figure 3 shows the cycle frequency, 1/stance duration, and 1/swing duration as a function of the velocity. There is a strong linear relation between the frequency of the cycle and the locomotion speed (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). There is also a strong liner relation between the inverse of the stance duration and locomotion speed (r = 0.82, p < 0.001). No significant correlation between the swing duration and locomotion was found (r = 0.11, p = 0.34).

Bottom Line: We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants.Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements.Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Autonomous Motion Department, Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems , Tübingen , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crawling on hands and knees is an early pattern of human infant locomotion, which offers an interesting way of studying quadrupedalism in one of its simplest form. We investigate how crawling human infants compare to other quadruped mammals, especially primates. We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants. Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements. Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion. However, there are important differences compared to primates, such as the choice of a lateral-sequence walking gait, which is similar to most non-primate mammals and the relatively stiff elbows during stance as opposed to the quite compliant gaits of primates. These finding raise the question of the role of both the mechanical structure of the body and neural control on the determination of these characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus