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Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals.

Righetti L, Nylén A, Rosander K, Ijspeert AJ - Front Neurol (2015)

Bottom Line: We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants.Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements.Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Autonomous Motion Department, Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems , Tübingen , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crawling on hands and knees is an early pattern of human infant locomotion, which offers an interesting way of studying quadrupedalism in one of its simplest form. We investigate how crawling human infants compare to other quadruped mammals, especially primates. We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants. Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements. Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion. However, there are important differences compared to primates, such as the choice of a lateral-sequence walking gait, which is similar to most non-primate mammals and the relatively stiff elbows during stance as opposed to the quite compliant gaits of primates. These finding raise the question of the role of both the mechanical structure of the body and neural control on the determination of these characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Typical footfall sequence (real data) of the infant standard crawling gait. The dashed boxes show the stance phases and the white ones the swing phases. In this case, the infant starts to crawl when the right arm swing first. The graph shows the long stance durations, the walking trot gait, and the fact that the arms swing slightly before the diagonal limbs.
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Figure 2: Typical footfall sequence (real data) of the infant standard crawling gait. The dashed boxes show the stance phases and the white ones the swing phases. In this case, the infant starts to crawl when the right arm swing first. The graph shows the long stance durations, the walking trot gait, and the fact that the arms swing slightly before the diagonal limbs.

Mentions: The crawling gait is characterized by almost synchronous movements between the ipsilateral arm and the contralateral leg. The ipsilateral arm is roughly half a period out of phase with the contralateral arm. The swing phases of the ipsilateral limbs never overlap. Figure 2 shows the typical footfall sequence of this gait.


Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals.

Righetti L, Nylén A, Rosander K, Ijspeert AJ - Front Neurol (2015)

Typical footfall sequence (real data) of the infant standard crawling gait. The dashed boxes show the stance phases and the white ones the swing phases. In this case, the infant starts to crawl when the right arm swing first. The graph shows the long stance durations, the walking trot gait, and the fact that the arms swing slightly before the diagonal limbs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321575&req=5

Figure 2: Typical footfall sequence (real data) of the infant standard crawling gait. The dashed boxes show the stance phases and the white ones the swing phases. In this case, the infant starts to crawl when the right arm swing first. The graph shows the long stance durations, the walking trot gait, and the fact that the arms swing slightly before the diagonal limbs.
Mentions: The crawling gait is characterized by almost synchronous movements between the ipsilateral arm and the contralateral leg. The ipsilateral arm is roughly half a period out of phase with the contralateral arm. The swing phases of the ipsilateral limbs never overlap. Figure 2 shows the typical footfall sequence of this gait.

Bottom Line: We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants.Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements.Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Autonomous Motion Department, Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems , Tübingen , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crawling on hands and knees is an early pattern of human infant locomotion, which offers an interesting way of studying quadrupedalism in one of its simplest form. We investigate how crawling human infants compare to other quadruped mammals, especially primates. We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants. Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements. Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion. However, there are important differences compared to primates, such as the choice of a lateral-sequence walking gait, which is similar to most non-primate mammals and the relatively stiff elbows during stance as opposed to the quite compliant gaits of primates. These finding raise the question of the role of both the mechanical structure of the body and neural control on the determination of these characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus