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Chloroplast-encoded serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the red alga Pyropia yezoensis: gene transition to the nucleus from chloroplasts.

Byeon Y, Yool Lee H, Choi DW, Back K - J. Exp. Bot. (2014)

Bottom Line: Melatonin was present at 0.16ng g(-1) of fresh mass but increased during heat stress.Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence suggested that PySNAT has evolved from the cyanobacteria SNAT gene via endosymbiotic gene transfer.Additionally, the chloroplast transit peptides of plant SNATs were acquired 1500 million years ago, concurrent with the appearance of green algae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Program of Bioenergy and Biomaterials, Bioenergy Research Center, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Predicted chloroplast transit peptides of SNAT homologues. (B) Total amino acid lengths of SNAT homologues and ChloroP values. Chloroplast transit peptides were predicted using ChloroP analysis. The sequences included are as follows (GenBank accession numbers): club moss (XP_002983152), maize (NP_001143827), sorghum (XP_002439969), brachypodium (XP_003568235), rice (NP_001055858), grape (XP_002266361), soybean (XP_003534628), poplar (XP_002323094), Arabidopsis (NP_001077641), moss (XP_001782491), Volvox (XP_002956032), and O. tauri (Ot021358). Brachipod, Brachypodium distachyon; Arabidop, Arabidopsis thaliana; O. tauri, Ostreococcus tauri. The higher the score, the more confidence that the sequence contains an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (Emanuelsson et al., 1999). *This value indicates an absence of the chloroplast transit peptides.
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Figure 7: (A) Predicted chloroplast transit peptides of SNAT homologues. (B) Total amino acid lengths of SNAT homologues and ChloroP values. Chloroplast transit peptides were predicted using ChloroP analysis. The sequences included are as follows (GenBank accession numbers): club moss (XP_002983152), maize (NP_001143827), sorghum (XP_002439969), brachypodium (XP_003568235), rice (NP_001055858), grape (XP_002266361), soybean (XP_003534628), poplar (XP_002323094), Arabidopsis (NP_001077641), moss (XP_001782491), Volvox (XP_002956032), and O. tauri (Ot021358). Brachipod, Brachypodium distachyon; Arabidop, Arabidopsis thaliana; O. tauri, Ostreococcus tauri. The higher the score, the more confidence that the sequence contains an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (Emanuelsson et al., 1999). *This value indicates an absence of the chloroplast transit peptides.

Mentions: All SNAT genes that have been examined in plant lineages possess an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide according to ChloroP analysis (Emanuelsson et al., 1999). The lengths of chloroplast transit peptides vary among species and range from 14 to 83 aa (Fig. 7). The first acquisition of chloroplast transit peptides occurred in the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri, which is thought to possess a 14 aa chloroplast transit peptide. The length of chloroplast transit peptides then increased to 30 aa in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri, although O. tauri and Volvox belong to Prasinophyceae and Chlorophyceae, respectively, and are not closely related to the ancestors of the embryophytes. However, a moss (Physcomitrella patens) positioned between green algae and vascular plants during plant evolution contained an 83 aa chloroplast transit peptide. Other land plants such as maize and rice have various lengths of chloroplast transit peptides ranging from 45 to 83 aa. Thus, the chloroplast transit peptides were probably acquired 1500 million years ago during the evolution of unicellular green algae (Yoon et al., 2004), after which they progressively increased in length until the vascular plants emerged 450 million years ago. The average lengths of the chloroplast transit peptides among plant SNAT proteins was around 58 aa, which is the typical length of average plant chloroplast transit peptides (Zhang and Glaser, 2002). The chloroplast targeting functions of the 14 and 30 aa chloroplast transit peptides in O. tauri and V. carteri, respectively, requires further analysis.


Chloroplast-encoded serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the red alga Pyropia yezoensis: gene transition to the nucleus from chloroplasts.

Byeon Y, Yool Lee H, Choi DW, Back K - J. Exp. Bot. (2014)

(A) Predicted chloroplast transit peptides of SNAT homologues. (B) Total amino acid lengths of SNAT homologues and ChloroP values. Chloroplast transit peptides were predicted using ChloroP analysis. The sequences included are as follows (GenBank accession numbers): club moss (XP_002983152), maize (NP_001143827), sorghum (XP_002439969), brachypodium (XP_003568235), rice (NP_001055858), grape (XP_002266361), soybean (XP_003534628), poplar (XP_002323094), Arabidopsis (NP_001077641), moss (XP_001782491), Volvox (XP_002956032), and O. tauri (Ot021358). Brachipod, Brachypodium distachyon; Arabidop, Arabidopsis thaliana; O. tauri, Ostreococcus tauri. The higher the score, the more confidence that the sequence contains an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (Emanuelsson et al., 1999). *This value indicates an absence of the chloroplast transit peptides.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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Figure 7: (A) Predicted chloroplast transit peptides of SNAT homologues. (B) Total amino acid lengths of SNAT homologues and ChloroP values. Chloroplast transit peptides were predicted using ChloroP analysis. The sequences included are as follows (GenBank accession numbers): club moss (XP_002983152), maize (NP_001143827), sorghum (XP_002439969), brachypodium (XP_003568235), rice (NP_001055858), grape (XP_002266361), soybean (XP_003534628), poplar (XP_002323094), Arabidopsis (NP_001077641), moss (XP_001782491), Volvox (XP_002956032), and O. tauri (Ot021358). Brachipod, Brachypodium distachyon; Arabidop, Arabidopsis thaliana; O. tauri, Ostreococcus tauri. The higher the score, the more confidence that the sequence contains an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (Emanuelsson et al., 1999). *This value indicates an absence of the chloroplast transit peptides.
Mentions: All SNAT genes that have been examined in plant lineages possess an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide according to ChloroP analysis (Emanuelsson et al., 1999). The lengths of chloroplast transit peptides vary among species and range from 14 to 83 aa (Fig. 7). The first acquisition of chloroplast transit peptides occurred in the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri, which is thought to possess a 14 aa chloroplast transit peptide. The length of chloroplast transit peptides then increased to 30 aa in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri, although O. tauri and Volvox belong to Prasinophyceae and Chlorophyceae, respectively, and are not closely related to the ancestors of the embryophytes. However, a moss (Physcomitrella patens) positioned between green algae and vascular plants during plant evolution contained an 83 aa chloroplast transit peptide. Other land plants such as maize and rice have various lengths of chloroplast transit peptides ranging from 45 to 83 aa. Thus, the chloroplast transit peptides were probably acquired 1500 million years ago during the evolution of unicellular green algae (Yoon et al., 2004), after which they progressively increased in length until the vascular plants emerged 450 million years ago. The average lengths of the chloroplast transit peptides among plant SNAT proteins was around 58 aa, which is the typical length of average plant chloroplast transit peptides (Zhang and Glaser, 2002). The chloroplast targeting functions of the 14 and 30 aa chloroplast transit peptides in O. tauri and V. carteri, respectively, requires further analysis.

Bottom Line: Melatonin was present at 0.16ng g(-1) of fresh mass but increased during heat stress.Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence suggested that PySNAT has evolved from the cyanobacteria SNAT gene via endosymbiotic gene transfer.Additionally, the chloroplast transit peptides of plant SNATs were acquired 1500 million years ago, concurrent with the appearance of green algae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Program of Bioenergy and Biomaterials, Bioenergy Research Center, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus