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Emerging clinical applications of selected biomarkers in melanoma.

Tetzlaff MT, Torres-Cabala CA, Pattanaprichakul P, Rapini RP, Prieto VG, Curry JL - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Bottom Line: Several melanocytic tissue biomarkers are available that can facilitate the histopathologic interpretation of melanoma as well as provide insight into the biologic potential and mutational status of this disease.This review describes the clinical application of some of these established and emerging tissue biomarkers available to assess melanocytic differentiation, vascular invasion, mitotic capacity, and mutation status.The selected tissue biomarkers in this review include MiTF, Sox10, D2-40, PHH3, H3KT (anti-H3K79me3T80ph), anti-BRAFV600E, and anti-BAP-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Section of Dermatopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Melanoma is a lethal skin disease with a mostly predictable clinical course according to a known constellation of clinical and pathologic features. The distinction of melanoma from benign melanocytic nevus is typically unequivocol; however, there is a subset of tumors known for its diagnostic challenges, development of late metastases, and difficulties in treatment. Several melanocytic tissue biomarkers are available that can facilitate the histopathologic interpretation of melanoma as well as provide insight into the biologic potential and mutational status of this disease. This review describes the clinical application of some of these established and emerging tissue biomarkers available to assess melanocytic differentiation, vascular invasion, mitotic capacity, and mutation status. The selected tissue biomarkers in this review include MiTF, Sox10, D2-40, PHH3, H3KT (anti-H3K79me3T80ph), anti-BRAFV600E, and anti-BAP-1.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Detection and confirmation of lymphovascular invasion.Notes: (A) Cluster of melanoma cells in a vascular-like space (*) (H&E stain, ×400); (B) D2-40 highlights lymphatic vessel and confirms LVI (IHC stain, ×400); (C) Dual IHC stain with MiTF (brown, nuclear) and D2-40 (red, cytoplasmic) highlights isolated melanoma cell in lymphatic channel (arrow) (×400); (D) Dual IHC stain with Sox10 (red, nuclear) and D2-40 (brown, cytoplasmic) confirms the collection of inflammatory cells (arrow) in a lymphatic vessel (arrow) and the absence of LVI (×400). Note the adjacent Sox10-positive melanoma cells.Abbreviations: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; LVI, lymphovascular invasion.
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f4-ccid-8-035: Detection and confirmation of lymphovascular invasion.Notes: (A) Cluster of melanoma cells in a vascular-like space (*) (H&E stain, ×400); (B) D2-40 highlights lymphatic vessel and confirms LVI (IHC stain, ×400); (C) Dual IHC stain with MiTF (brown, nuclear) and D2-40 (red, cytoplasmic) highlights isolated melanoma cell in lymphatic channel (arrow) (×400); (D) Dual IHC stain with Sox10 (red, nuclear) and D2-40 (brown, cytoplasmic) confirms the collection of inflammatory cells (arrow) in a lymphatic vessel (arrow) and the absence of LVI (×400). Note the adjacent Sox10-positive melanoma cells.Abbreviations: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; LVI, lymphovascular invasion.

Mentions: The endothelial marker D2-40 (podoplanin) is a highly specific monoclonal antibody for lymphatic endothelium but does not react with blood vessel endothelium; thus, D2-40 is a selective marker to highlight LVI by tumor cells.56 Use of D2-40 in cutaneous melanoma, compared with use of HE stain alone, increased the frequency of both intratumoral and peritumoral LVI detection.57,58 In fact, detection of LVI with D2-40 in cutaneous melanoma correlated with positive sentinel lymph nodes and worse overall and disease-free survival (Figure 4A and B).58,59 The importance of LVI detection with D2-40 is not limited to cutaneous melanomas but offers prognostic value in other human cancers such as endometrial, breast, esophageal, colorectal, and Merkel cell cancers.60–63


Emerging clinical applications of selected biomarkers in melanoma.

Tetzlaff MT, Torres-Cabala CA, Pattanaprichakul P, Rapini RP, Prieto VG, Curry JL - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Detection and confirmation of lymphovascular invasion.Notes: (A) Cluster of melanoma cells in a vascular-like space (*) (H&E stain, ×400); (B) D2-40 highlights lymphatic vessel and confirms LVI (IHC stain, ×400); (C) Dual IHC stain with MiTF (brown, nuclear) and D2-40 (red, cytoplasmic) highlights isolated melanoma cell in lymphatic channel (arrow) (×400); (D) Dual IHC stain with Sox10 (red, nuclear) and D2-40 (brown, cytoplasmic) confirms the collection of inflammatory cells (arrow) in a lymphatic vessel (arrow) and the absence of LVI (×400). Note the adjacent Sox10-positive melanoma cells.Abbreviations: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; LVI, lymphovascular invasion.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321413&req=5

f4-ccid-8-035: Detection and confirmation of lymphovascular invasion.Notes: (A) Cluster of melanoma cells in a vascular-like space (*) (H&E stain, ×400); (B) D2-40 highlights lymphatic vessel and confirms LVI (IHC stain, ×400); (C) Dual IHC stain with MiTF (brown, nuclear) and D2-40 (red, cytoplasmic) highlights isolated melanoma cell in lymphatic channel (arrow) (×400); (D) Dual IHC stain with Sox10 (red, nuclear) and D2-40 (brown, cytoplasmic) confirms the collection of inflammatory cells (arrow) in a lymphatic vessel (arrow) and the absence of LVI (×400). Note the adjacent Sox10-positive melanoma cells.Abbreviations: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; LVI, lymphovascular invasion.
Mentions: The endothelial marker D2-40 (podoplanin) is a highly specific monoclonal antibody for lymphatic endothelium but does not react with blood vessel endothelium; thus, D2-40 is a selective marker to highlight LVI by tumor cells.56 Use of D2-40 in cutaneous melanoma, compared with use of HE stain alone, increased the frequency of both intratumoral and peritumoral LVI detection.57,58 In fact, detection of LVI with D2-40 in cutaneous melanoma correlated with positive sentinel lymph nodes and worse overall and disease-free survival (Figure 4A and B).58,59 The importance of LVI detection with D2-40 is not limited to cutaneous melanomas but offers prognostic value in other human cancers such as endometrial, breast, esophageal, colorectal, and Merkel cell cancers.60–63

Bottom Line: Several melanocytic tissue biomarkers are available that can facilitate the histopathologic interpretation of melanoma as well as provide insight into the biologic potential and mutational status of this disease.This review describes the clinical application of some of these established and emerging tissue biomarkers available to assess melanocytic differentiation, vascular invasion, mitotic capacity, and mutation status.The selected tissue biomarkers in this review include MiTF, Sox10, D2-40, PHH3, H3KT (anti-H3K79me3T80ph), anti-BRAFV600E, and anti-BAP-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Section of Dermatopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Melanoma is a lethal skin disease with a mostly predictable clinical course according to a known constellation of clinical and pathologic features. The distinction of melanoma from benign melanocytic nevus is typically unequivocol; however, there is a subset of tumors known for its diagnostic challenges, development of late metastases, and difficulties in treatment. Several melanocytic tissue biomarkers are available that can facilitate the histopathologic interpretation of melanoma as well as provide insight into the biologic potential and mutational status of this disease. This review describes the clinical application of some of these established and emerging tissue biomarkers available to assess melanocytic differentiation, vascular invasion, mitotic capacity, and mutation status. The selected tissue biomarkers in this review include MiTF, Sox10, D2-40, PHH3, H3KT (anti-H3K79me3T80ph), anti-BRAFV600E, and anti-BAP-1.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus