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Some (bacilli) like it hot: genomics of Geobacillus species.

Studholme DJ - Microb Biotechnol (2014)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.

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The genus Geobacillus includes thermophilic Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that form a phylogenetically coherent clade within the family Bacillaceae... Genome sequences are also available for some other thermophilic members of the Bacillaceae, such as Paenibacillus lautus (Mead et al., ) and Bacillus coagulans (Xu et al., ) and for Geobacillus-infecting bacteriophage (Marks and Hamilton, ), but these will not be discussed here... However, the availability of complete genome sequence data enables phylogenetic analysis based on single-nucleotide variants over the entire core genome, offering much greater resolution (Fig.  3A)... According to the core-genome-wide phylogenetic analysis, the two strains assigned as G.  kaustophilus do not form a phylogenetically coherent monophyletic clade... Nucleotide sequence identities between clades are much lower; between G.  kaustophilus and G.  thermoglucosidans, there is approximately 84% identity... The considerable amount of reticulation in the phylogenetic network (Fig.  3A) suggests significant horizontal genetic transfer within and among these species... CAMR12739... The NG80-2 genome sequence also enabled discovery of the first nitrous oxide reductase gene from a Gram-positive, and a novel thermophilic long-chain alkane monooxygenase (Feng et al., )... Specifically, they used the genome sequence to clone two promoters and incorporated them into plasmid vectors: one for inducible gene expression and one constitutive... The authors also mention that they tried other promoters that did not work so well; presumably, the availability of the genome sequence allowed them to relatively quickly screen a number of candidates until they found the best ones... Only then can we rationally design genetic interventions to predictably manipulate metabolism... And finally, palaeo-genomics of ancient Geobacillus spores, which may be viable after billions of years of dormancy, might shed light on population-genetics and evolutionary processes over timescales that we previously assumed to be intractable (Nicholson, ; Zeigler, ).

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Diverse colony morphologies of strains classified as ‘G. stearothermophilus’. Strains NRRL 1174, K1041 and NUB3621 were streaked-out on tryptic soy broth plates and incubated overnight at 50°C. Plates were photographed under identical conditions.
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fig01: Diverse colony morphologies of strains classified as ‘G. stearothermophilus’. Strains NRRL 1174, K1041 and NUB3621 were streaked-out on tryptic soy broth plates and incubated overnight at 50°C. Plates were photographed under identical conditions.

Mentions: These bacteria were previously categorized as ‘Group 5’ within the genus Bacillus but were subsequently split into the new genus Geobacillus (Nazina et al., 2001). Many Geobacillus strains were previously described as belonging to a single species Bacillus stearothermophilus, but it was clear that there was great heterogeneity in physiology, preferred temperature range and other phenotypic characteristics among these strains. For example, see Fig. 1 showing three distinct colony morphologies among three strains described as ‘B. stearothermophilus’. It is now absolutely clear that there are several distinct species within Geobacillus and these can be distinguished by both genotype and phenotype (Nazina et al., 2001; Banat et al., 2004; Zeigler, 2005; Dinsdale et al., 2011; Coorevits et al., 2012).


Some (bacilli) like it hot: genomics of Geobacillus species.

Studholme DJ - Microb Biotechnol (2014)

Diverse colony morphologies of strains classified as ‘G. stearothermophilus’. Strains NRRL 1174, K1041 and NUB3621 were streaked-out on tryptic soy broth plates and incubated overnight at 50°C. Plates were photographed under identical conditions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321371&req=5

fig01: Diverse colony morphologies of strains classified as ‘G. stearothermophilus’. Strains NRRL 1174, K1041 and NUB3621 were streaked-out on tryptic soy broth plates and incubated overnight at 50°C. Plates were photographed under identical conditions.
Mentions: These bacteria were previously categorized as ‘Group 5’ within the genus Bacillus but were subsequently split into the new genus Geobacillus (Nazina et al., 2001). Many Geobacillus strains were previously described as belonging to a single species Bacillus stearothermophilus, but it was clear that there was great heterogeneity in physiology, preferred temperature range and other phenotypic characteristics among these strains. For example, see Fig. 1 showing three distinct colony morphologies among three strains described as ‘B. stearothermophilus’. It is now absolutely clear that there are several distinct species within Geobacillus and these can be distinguished by both genotype and phenotype (Nazina et al., 2001; Banat et al., 2004; Zeigler, 2005; Dinsdale et al., 2011; Coorevits et al., 2012).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

The genus Geobacillus includes thermophilic Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that form a phylogenetically coherent clade within the family Bacillaceae... Genome sequences are also available for some other thermophilic members of the Bacillaceae, such as Paenibacillus lautus (Mead et al., ) and Bacillus coagulans (Xu et al., ) and for Geobacillus-infecting bacteriophage (Marks and Hamilton, ), but these will not be discussed here... However, the availability of complete genome sequence data enables phylogenetic analysis based on single-nucleotide variants over the entire core genome, offering much greater resolution (Fig.  3A)... According to the core-genome-wide phylogenetic analysis, the two strains assigned as G.  kaustophilus do not form a phylogenetically coherent monophyletic clade... Nucleotide sequence identities between clades are much lower; between G.  kaustophilus and G.  thermoglucosidans, there is approximately 84% identity... The considerable amount of reticulation in the phylogenetic network (Fig.  3A) suggests significant horizontal genetic transfer within and among these species... CAMR12739... The NG80-2 genome sequence also enabled discovery of the first nitrous oxide reductase gene from a Gram-positive, and a novel thermophilic long-chain alkane monooxygenase (Feng et al., )... Specifically, they used the genome sequence to clone two promoters and incorporated them into plasmid vectors: one for inducible gene expression and one constitutive... The authors also mention that they tried other promoters that did not work so well; presumably, the availability of the genome sequence allowed them to relatively quickly screen a number of candidates until they found the best ones... Only then can we rationally design genetic interventions to predictably manipulate metabolism... And finally, palaeo-genomics of ancient Geobacillus spores, which may be viable after billions of years of dormancy, might shed light on population-genetics and evolutionary processes over timescales that we previously assumed to be intractable (Nicholson, ; Zeigler, ).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus