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Unaddressed participants' gaze in multi-person interaction: optimizing recipiency.

Holler J, Kendrick KH - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Temporal analyses of the unaddressed participants' gaze shifts from current to next speaker revealed that unaddressed participants are able to anticipate next turns, and moreover, that they often shift their gaze toward the next speaker before the current turn ends.However, an analysis of the complex structure of turns at talk revealed that the planning of these gaze shifts virtually coincides with the points at which the turns first become recognizable as possibly complete.We argue that the timing of these eye movements is governed by an organizational principle whereby unaddressed participants shift their gaze at a point that appears interactionally most optimal: It provides unaddressed participants with access to much of the visual, bodily behavior that accompanies both the current speaker's and the next speaker's turn, and it allows them to display recipiency with regard to both speakers' turns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics Nijmegen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
One of the most intriguing aspects of human communication is its turn-taking system. It requires the ability to process on-going turns at talk while planning the next, and to launch this next turn without considerable overlap or delay. Recent research has investigated the eye movements of observers of dialogs to gain insight into how we process turns at talk. More specifically, this research has focused on the extent to which we are able to anticipate the end of current and the beginning of next turns. At the same time, there has been a call for shifting experimental paradigms exploring social-cognitive processes away from passive observation toward on-line processing. Here, we present research that responds to this call by situating state-of-the-art technology for tracking interlocutors' eye movements within spontaneous, face-to-face conversation. Each conversation involved three native speakers of English. The analysis focused on question-response sequences involving just two of those participants, thus rendering the third momentarily unaddressed. Temporal analyses of the unaddressed participants' gaze shifts from current to next speaker revealed that unaddressed participants are able to anticipate next turns, and moreover, that they often shift their gaze toward the next speaker before the current turn ends. However, an analysis of the complex structure of turns at talk revealed that the planning of these gaze shifts virtually coincides with the points at which the turns first become recognizable as possibly complete. We argue that the timing of these eye movements is governed by an organizational principle whereby unaddressed participants shift their gaze at a point that appears interactionally most optimal: It provides unaddressed participants with access to much of the visual, bodily behavior that accompanies both the current speaker's and the next speaker's turn, and it allows them to display recipiency with regard to both speakers' turns.

No MeSH data available.


Unaddressed participants’ first gaze shift away from speaker A to speaker B for responses with an onset of 200 ms or more after the first possible completion of the question. The zero point on the x-axis (ms) marks the first possible completion of the turn. The peak of the distribution represents the estimate of the mode. Dots represent the individual datapoints.
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Figure 6: Unaddressed participants’ first gaze shift away from speaker A to speaker B for responses with an onset of 200 ms or more after the first possible completion of the question. The zero point on the x-axis (ms) marks the first possible completion of the turn. The peak of the distribution represents the estimate of the mode. Dots represent the individual datapoints.

Mentions: For the first analysis, we considered only those QR sequences where speaker A’s first possible completion and speaker B’s response onset did not coincide but where the response comes after the possible completion. For this comparison, we selected those sequences where the response occurred more than 200 ms 3 after the first possible completion (N = 54). If the timing of the unaddressed participants’ gaze shifts we observed based on the sample as a whole is explained by response onset rather than by first possible completions, then the mode for this subset of data should be at least 200 ms later than the mode for the distribution based on the entire sample. However, as can be gleaned from Figure 6, the mode for this subset is 105 ms (Range = –2337–2419), which differs only slightly from the mode of 160 ms for the entire sample. If anything, unaddressed participants’ observed gaze shifts occur slightly earlier when B’s response occurs 200 ms after the first possible completion, and certainly no later than when we consider the entire sample. Thus, unaddressed participants’ eye movements in our data do indeed appear to reflect sensitivity to the first possible completion of the question, rather than being a mere reaction to the onset of the response.


Unaddressed participants' gaze in multi-person interaction: optimizing recipiency.

Holler J, Kendrick KH - Front Psychol (2015)

Unaddressed participants’ first gaze shift away from speaker A to speaker B for responses with an onset of 200 ms or more after the first possible completion of the question. The zero point on the x-axis (ms) marks the first possible completion of the turn. The peak of the distribution represents the estimate of the mode. Dots represent the individual datapoints.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321333&req=5

Figure 6: Unaddressed participants’ first gaze shift away from speaker A to speaker B for responses with an onset of 200 ms or more after the first possible completion of the question. The zero point on the x-axis (ms) marks the first possible completion of the turn. The peak of the distribution represents the estimate of the mode. Dots represent the individual datapoints.
Mentions: For the first analysis, we considered only those QR sequences where speaker A’s first possible completion and speaker B’s response onset did not coincide but where the response comes after the possible completion. For this comparison, we selected those sequences where the response occurred more than 200 ms 3 after the first possible completion (N = 54). If the timing of the unaddressed participants’ gaze shifts we observed based on the sample as a whole is explained by response onset rather than by first possible completions, then the mode for this subset of data should be at least 200 ms later than the mode for the distribution based on the entire sample. However, as can be gleaned from Figure 6, the mode for this subset is 105 ms (Range = –2337–2419), which differs only slightly from the mode of 160 ms for the entire sample. If anything, unaddressed participants’ observed gaze shifts occur slightly earlier when B’s response occurs 200 ms after the first possible completion, and certainly no later than when we consider the entire sample. Thus, unaddressed participants’ eye movements in our data do indeed appear to reflect sensitivity to the first possible completion of the question, rather than being a mere reaction to the onset of the response.

Bottom Line: Temporal analyses of the unaddressed participants' gaze shifts from current to next speaker revealed that unaddressed participants are able to anticipate next turns, and moreover, that they often shift their gaze toward the next speaker before the current turn ends.However, an analysis of the complex structure of turns at talk revealed that the planning of these gaze shifts virtually coincides with the points at which the turns first become recognizable as possibly complete.We argue that the timing of these eye movements is governed by an organizational principle whereby unaddressed participants shift their gaze at a point that appears interactionally most optimal: It provides unaddressed participants with access to much of the visual, bodily behavior that accompanies both the current speaker's and the next speaker's turn, and it allows them to display recipiency with regard to both speakers' turns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics Nijmegen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
One of the most intriguing aspects of human communication is its turn-taking system. It requires the ability to process on-going turns at talk while planning the next, and to launch this next turn without considerable overlap or delay. Recent research has investigated the eye movements of observers of dialogs to gain insight into how we process turns at talk. More specifically, this research has focused on the extent to which we are able to anticipate the end of current and the beginning of next turns. At the same time, there has been a call for shifting experimental paradigms exploring social-cognitive processes away from passive observation toward on-line processing. Here, we present research that responds to this call by situating state-of-the-art technology for tracking interlocutors' eye movements within spontaneous, face-to-face conversation. Each conversation involved three native speakers of English. The analysis focused on question-response sequences involving just two of those participants, thus rendering the third momentarily unaddressed. Temporal analyses of the unaddressed participants' gaze shifts from current to next speaker revealed that unaddressed participants are able to anticipate next turns, and moreover, that they often shift their gaze toward the next speaker before the current turn ends. However, an analysis of the complex structure of turns at talk revealed that the planning of these gaze shifts virtually coincides with the points at which the turns first become recognizable as possibly complete. We argue that the timing of these eye movements is governed by an organizational principle whereby unaddressed participants shift their gaze at a point that appears interactionally most optimal: It provides unaddressed participants with access to much of the visual, bodily behavior that accompanies both the current speaker's and the next speaker's turn, and it allows them to display recipiency with regard to both speakers' turns.

No MeSH data available.