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Self-assembled wiggling nano-structures and the principle of maximum entropy production.

Belkin A, Hubler A, Bezryadin A - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Curiously, we find that emerging self-assembled structures can start to wiggle.The wiggling takes place only until the entropy production in the suspension reaches its maximum, at which time the wiggling stops and the structure becomes quasi-stable.Thus, we provide strong evidence that maximum entropy production principle plays an essential role in the evolution of self-organizing systems far from equilibrium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL.

ABSTRACT
While behavior of equilibrium systems is well understood, evolution of nonequilibrium ones is much less clear. Yet, many researches have suggested that the principle of the maximum entropy production is of key importance in complex systems away from equilibrium. Here, we present a quantitative study of large ensembles of carbon nanotubes suspended in a non-conducting non-polar fluid subject to a strong electric field. Being driven out of equilibrium, the suspension spontaneously organizes into an electrically conducting state under a wide range of parameters. Such self-assembly allows the Joule heating and, therefore, the entropy production in the fluid, to be maximized. Curiously, we find that emerging self-assembled structures can start to wiggle. The wiggling takes place only until the entropy production in the suspension reaches its maximum, at which time the wiggling stops and the structure becomes quasi-stable. Thus, we provide strong evidence that maximum entropy production principle plays an essential role in the evolution of self-organizing systems far from equilibrium.

No MeSH data available.


The resistance of nanotube chains formed in the fluid at different series resistances.For each Rs four values of Rf are shown, measured at different times t. Blue diamonds represent the longest evolution time. Applied voltage is 150 V, concentration of nanotubes is 0.075 g/l. The blue dashed line corresponds to Rf = Rs, t0 is the time when P(t0)/Pmax = 1.
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f3: The resistance of nanotube chains formed in the fluid at different series resistances.For each Rs four values of Rf are shown, measured at different times t. Blue diamonds represent the longest evolution time. Applied voltage is 150 V, concentration of nanotubes is 0.075 g/l. The blue dashed line corresponds to Rf = Rs, t0 is the time when P(t0)/Pmax = 1.

Mentions: Despite the number of factors impeding the formation of CNT chains, the complete evolution takes place in a surprisingly wide range of experimental parameters. To study the ability of the system to adjust its resistance to reach Pmax, we performed a number of experiments in which we fixed the applied voltage U and varied the series resistance Rs. The results of these measurements are plotted in Figure 3. As one can see, Rf tends towards Rs with time. This finding is especially remarkable since the series resistance is varied across three orders of magnitude, whereas all other parameters, namely the concentration of nanotubes and the applied voltage, are kept the same.


Self-assembled wiggling nano-structures and the principle of maximum entropy production.

Belkin A, Hubler A, Bezryadin A - Sci Rep (2015)

The resistance of nanotube chains formed in the fluid at different series resistances.For each Rs four values of Rf are shown, measured at different times t. Blue diamonds represent the longest evolution time. Applied voltage is 150 V, concentration of nanotubes is 0.075 g/l. The blue dashed line corresponds to Rf = Rs, t0 is the time when P(t0)/Pmax = 1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4321171&req=5

f3: The resistance of nanotube chains formed in the fluid at different series resistances.For each Rs four values of Rf are shown, measured at different times t. Blue diamonds represent the longest evolution time. Applied voltage is 150 V, concentration of nanotubes is 0.075 g/l. The blue dashed line corresponds to Rf = Rs, t0 is the time when P(t0)/Pmax = 1.
Mentions: Despite the number of factors impeding the formation of CNT chains, the complete evolution takes place in a surprisingly wide range of experimental parameters. To study the ability of the system to adjust its resistance to reach Pmax, we performed a number of experiments in which we fixed the applied voltage U and varied the series resistance Rs. The results of these measurements are plotted in Figure 3. As one can see, Rf tends towards Rs with time. This finding is especially remarkable since the series resistance is varied across three orders of magnitude, whereas all other parameters, namely the concentration of nanotubes and the applied voltage, are kept the same.

Bottom Line: Curiously, we find that emerging self-assembled structures can start to wiggle.The wiggling takes place only until the entropy production in the suspension reaches its maximum, at which time the wiggling stops and the structure becomes quasi-stable.Thus, we provide strong evidence that maximum entropy production principle plays an essential role in the evolution of self-organizing systems far from equilibrium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL.

ABSTRACT
While behavior of equilibrium systems is well understood, evolution of nonequilibrium ones is much less clear. Yet, many researches have suggested that the principle of the maximum entropy production is of key importance in complex systems away from equilibrium. Here, we present a quantitative study of large ensembles of carbon nanotubes suspended in a non-conducting non-polar fluid subject to a strong electric field. Being driven out of equilibrium, the suspension spontaneously organizes into an electrically conducting state under a wide range of parameters. Such self-assembly allows the Joule heating and, therefore, the entropy production in the fluid, to be maximized. Curiously, we find that emerging self-assembled structures can start to wiggle. The wiggling takes place only until the entropy production in the suspension reaches its maximum, at which time the wiggling stops and the structure becomes quasi-stable. Thus, we provide strong evidence that maximum entropy production principle plays an essential role in the evolution of self-organizing systems far from equilibrium.

No MeSH data available.