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Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

Islam MN, Dungani R, Abdul Khalil H, Alwani MS, Nadirah WW, Fizree HM - Springerplus (2013)

Bottom Line: The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated.However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples.Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Kragujevac, Penang Malaysia ; School of Life Science, Khulna University, Khulna, 9208 Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

FT-IR spectra of OPS nanoparticles.
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Fig3: FT-IR spectra of OPS nanoparticles.

Mentions: Figure 3 shows the FT-IR spectra of OPS nanoparticles. The OH stretch is usually broad and a strong absorption at 3404 cm-1 corresponds to the hydroxyl group (Afrouzi et al. 2013). The stretch at 2930 cm-1 is also strong and corresponds to -CH2- bonds (Firoozian et al. 2011). In addition, the frequencies at around 1732 cm-1 and 1606 cm-1 corresponds to carbonyl (C = O) groups of hemicellulose (Colom et al. 2003), and the C-O and C = C bonds (Dagwa et al. 2012). The absorbance peak located at 1251 cm-1, 1046 cm-1 and 607 cm-1 are C-O stretching vibration in ethers (Wetzel et al. 1998), C-OH bonding (Robert et al. 2005), and stretching and bending of poly hydroxyl groups (Klinkaewnarong and Maensiri 2010), respectively.Figure 3


Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

Islam MN, Dungani R, Abdul Khalil H, Alwani MS, Nadirah WW, Fizree HM - Springerplus (2013)

FT-IR spectra of OPS nanoparticles.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4320220&req=5

Fig3: FT-IR spectra of OPS nanoparticles.
Mentions: Figure 3 shows the FT-IR spectra of OPS nanoparticles. The OH stretch is usually broad and a strong absorption at 3404 cm-1 corresponds to the hydroxyl group (Afrouzi et al. 2013). The stretch at 2930 cm-1 is also strong and corresponds to -CH2- bonds (Firoozian et al. 2011). In addition, the frequencies at around 1732 cm-1 and 1606 cm-1 corresponds to carbonyl (C = O) groups of hemicellulose (Colom et al. 2003), and the C-O and C = C bonds (Dagwa et al. 2012). The absorbance peak located at 1251 cm-1, 1046 cm-1 and 607 cm-1 are C-O stretching vibration in ethers (Wetzel et al. 1998), C-OH bonding (Robert et al. 2005), and stretching and bending of poly hydroxyl groups (Klinkaewnarong and Maensiri 2010), respectively.Figure 3

Bottom Line: The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated.However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples.Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Kragujevac, Penang Malaysia ; School of Life Science, Khulna University, Khulna, 9208 Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus