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Short-term and long-term associations between household wealth and physical growth: a cross-comparative analysis of children from four low- and middle-income countries.

Krishna A, Oh J, Lee JK, Lee HY, Perkins JM, Heo J, Ro YS, Subramanian SV - Glob Health Action (2015)

Bottom Line: Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting.We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards.The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth faltering.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stunting, a form of anthropometric failure, disproportionately affects children in developing countries with a higher burden on children living in poverty. How early life deprivation affects physical growth over various life stages is less well-known.

Objective: We investigate the short- and long-run associations between household wealth in early life with physical growth in childhood in four low- and middle-income countries to understand the persistent implications of early life conditions of poverty and resource constraints on physical growth.

Design: Longitudinal study of eight cohorts of children in four countries - Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam (n=10,016) - ages 6 months to 15 years, using data from the Young Lives project, 2002-2009. Physical growth outcomes are standardized height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and stunting. The key exposure is household wealth measured at baseline using a wealth index, an asset-based indicator. Covariates include child's age and sex, caregiver's educational status, household size, and place of residence.

Results: Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting. We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards. For the older cohort, despite the timing of the first survey at age 7-8 years, which is beyond the critical period of 1,000 days, there are lasting influences of early poverty, even for those who experienced changes in wealth.

Conclusions: Household wealth in early life matters for physical growth with conditions of poverty and deprivation influencing growth faltering even beyond the 1,000 days window. The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth faltering.

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Mean height-for-age z-scores and prevalence of stunting over Young Lives surveys, by country and cohort.
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Figure 0001: Mean height-for-age z-scores and prevalence of stunting over Young Lives surveys, by country and cohort.

Mentions: Table 1 contains sample sizes by country and cohort with some variation due to attrition and missing data on key covariates. Mean HAZ and stunting prevalence for each country, survey round, and cohort are presented in Fig. 1 with data available in Table A2. In round 1, the mean HAZ score was the lowest among the older cohort in Ethiopia at −1.56, and the prevalence of stunting was highest in both cohorts in Ethiopia at 41%. Moreover, both India and Ethiopia continued to have higher prevalence of stunting over all survey rounds. However, unlike the other countries, which had only experienced declines in stunting from round 2 to round 3, Ethiopia experienced steady declines in stunting, reaching the same levels as Peru and Vietnam by round 3. This suggested greater catch-up growth in Ethiopia. Demographic characteristics of the sample are presented in Table 2.


Short-term and long-term associations between household wealth and physical growth: a cross-comparative analysis of children from four low- and middle-income countries.

Krishna A, Oh J, Lee JK, Lee HY, Perkins JM, Heo J, Ro YS, Subramanian SV - Glob Health Action (2015)

Mean height-for-age z-scores and prevalence of stunting over Young Lives surveys, by country and cohort.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4320209&req=5

Figure 0001: Mean height-for-age z-scores and prevalence of stunting over Young Lives surveys, by country and cohort.
Mentions: Table 1 contains sample sizes by country and cohort with some variation due to attrition and missing data on key covariates. Mean HAZ and stunting prevalence for each country, survey round, and cohort are presented in Fig. 1 with data available in Table A2. In round 1, the mean HAZ score was the lowest among the older cohort in Ethiopia at −1.56, and the prevalence of stunting was highest in both cohorts in Ethiopia at 41%. Moreover, both India and Ethiopia continued to have higher prevalence of stunting over all survey rounds. However, unlike the other countries, which had only experienced declines in stunting from round 2 to round 3, Ethiopia experienced steady declines in stunting, reaching the same levels as Peru and Vietnam by round 3. This suggested greater catch-up growth in Ethiopia. Demographic characteristics of the sample are presented in Table 2.

Bottom Line: Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting.We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards.The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth faltering.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stunting, a form of anthropometric failure, disproportionately affects children in developing countries with a higher burden on children living in poverty. How early life deprivation affects physical growth over various life stages is less well-known.

Objective: We investigate the short- and long-run associations between household wealth in early life with physical growth in childhood in four low- and middle-income countries to understand the persistent implications of early life conditions of poverty and resource constraints on physical growth.

Design: Longitudinal study of eight cohorts of children in four countries - Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam (n=10,016) - ages 6 months to 15 years, using data from the Young Lives project, 2002-2009. Physical growth outcomes are standardized height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and stunting. The key exposure is household wealth measured at baseline using a wealth index, an asset-based indicator. Covariates include child's age and sex, caregiver's educational status, household size, and place of residence.

Results: Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting. We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards. For the older cohort, despite the timing of the first survey at age 7-8 years, which is beyond the critical period of 1,000 days, there are lasting influences of early poverty, even for those who experienced changes in wealth.

Conclusions: Household wealth in early life matters for physical growth with conditions of poverty and deprivation influencing growth faltering even beyond the 1,000 days window. The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth faltering.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus