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Levels of major and trace elements in fennel (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) fruits cultivated in Ethiopia.

Endalamaw FD, Chandravanshi BS - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: The elemental concentrations (μg/g) in fennel fruit were: Ca (20,500-23,000), Mg (1,310-3,460), Fe (1,140-1,900), Mn (31-51), Cu (24-103), Cr (91-98), Co (26-71), Zn (37-45), Ni (19-24), and Cd (1.6-1.9) while in the soil were: Ca (1,440-1,780), Mg (1,260-3,310), Fe (26,900-28,000), Mn (1,460-1,980), Cu (51-101), Cr (127-141), Co (54-143), Zn (99-104), Ni (98-161), and Cd (1.7-2.9).The Ethiopian fennel fruits are rich in Ca and Mg and other essential elements (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) and can be used as good supplement for human being in particularly for children and pregnant women.Thus, Ethiopian fennel fruits are safe for human consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Wolayta Sodo University, P.O. Box: 138, Wolayta Sodo, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is one of the precious spices. Almost all parts of fennel plant are edible. The herb is used as carminative, digestive, diuretic, cosmetic and medicine.

Methods: A 0.5 g of the oven dried fennel fruit and soil samples were digested by wet-digestion method. The levels of selected elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) were determined in sweet fennel fruit (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) and soil from Addis Ababa (Central Ethiopia) and Gojjam (Northern West Ethiopia) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

Results: The elemental concentrations (μg/g) in fennel fruit were: Ca (20,500-23,000), Mg (1,310-3,460), Fe (1,140-1,900), Mn (31-51), Cu (24-103), Cr (91-98), Co (26-71), Zn (37-45), Ni (19-24), and Cd (1.6-1.9) while in the soil were: Ca (1,440-1,780), Mg (1,260-3,310), Fe (26,900-28,000), Mn (1,460-1,980), Cu (51-101), Cr (127-141), Co (54-143), Zn (99-104), Ni (98-161), and Cd (1.7-2.9). Pb was below the method detection limit in both the fennel fruit and soil.

Conclusion: The Ethiopian fennel fruits are rich in Ca and Mg and other essential elements (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) and can be used as good supplement for human being in particularly for children and pregnant women. The toxic element Cd is at trace level and Pb is not detected in the fennel fruit. Thus, Ethiopian fennel fruits are safe for human consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of concentration of elements in the fennel fruit to elements in the soil. A. Major elements and B. trace elements. AA = Addis Ababa, B = Bichena, DD = Debre Markos and FS = Finote Selam.
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Fig1: Comparison of concentration of elements in the fennel fruit to elements in the soil. A. Major elements and B. trace elements. AA = Addis Ababa, B = Bichena, DD = Debre Markos and FS = Finote Selam.

Mentions: In comparison between soil and fennel fruit sample except for Ca fennel fruit showed less or comparable accumulation of elements found in the soil. Higher accumulation was observed for Ca only (Table 7 and Figure 1A). This may be because it is a seasonal plant and the soil is acidic. Ca accumulation ability of fennel fruit makes it valuable Ca resource for infants, pregnant women and elderly persons who need it very much in addition to its medicinal and spicy nature. However, it is not possible to estimate the daily intake of Ca from fennel fruit by infant, pregnant women and elderly persons living in different parts of the country due to their variable daily intake. Also there is no systematic data available on the daily intake of fennel fruit. For Mg and Cu fennel fruit showed comparable accumulation to that of the soil but for Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Zn, Ni and Cd it showed low accumulation than available in the soil in all the sites. This might indicates that they are not found in bio-available form or fennel fruit has poor accumulation for these elements. The very low concentration of Cd and not detectable Pb in the fennel fruit indicate that the risk of toxicity of these elements is low when consuming it in row or processed forms. The FAO/WHO dietary recommendations of some of the metals are given in Table 8.Table 7


Levels of major and trace elements in fennel (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) fruits cultivated in Ethiopia.

Endalamaw FD, Chandravanshi BS - Springerplus (2015)

Comparison of concentration of elements in the fennel fruit to elements in the soil. A. Major elements and B. trace elements. AA = Addis Ababa, B = Bichena, DD = Debre Markos and FS = Finote Selam.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4320202&req=5

Fig1: Comparison of concentration of elements in the fennel fruit to elements in the soil. A. Major elements and B. trace elements. AA = Addis Ababa, B = Bichena, DD = Debre Markos and FS = Finote Selam.
Mentions: In comparison between soil and fennel fruit sample except for Ca fennel fruit showed less or comparable accumulation of elements found in the soil. Higher accumulation was observed for Ca only (Table 7 and Figure 1A). This may be because it is a seasonal plant and the soil is acidic. Ca accumulation ability of fennel fruit makes it valuable Ca resource for infants, pregnant women and elderly persons who need it very much in addition to its medicinal and spicy nature. However, it is not possible to estimate the daily intake of Ca from fennel fruit by infant, pregnant women and elderly persons living in different parts of the country due to their variable daily intake. Also there is no systematic data available on the daily intake of fennel fruit. For Mg and Cu fennel fruit showed comparable accumulation to that of the soil but for Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Zn, Ni and Cd it showed low accumulation than available in the soil in all the sites. This might indicates that they are not found in bio-available form or fennel fruit has poor accumulation for these elements. The very low concentration of Cd and not detectable Pb in the fennel fruit indicate that the risk of toxicity of these elements is low when consuming it in row or processed forms. The FAO/WHO dietary recommendations of some of the metals are given in Table 8.Table 7

Bottom Line: The elemental concentrations (μg/g) in fennel fruit were: Ca (20,500-23,000), Mg (1,310-3,460), Fe (1,140-1,900), Mn (31-51), Cu (24-103), Cr (91-98), Co (26-71), Zn (37-45), Ni (19-24), and Cd (1.6-1.9) while in the soil were: Ca (1,440-1,780), Mg (1,260-3,310), Fe (26,900-28,000), Mn (1,460-1,980), Cu (51-101), Cr (127-141), Co (54-143), Zn (99-104), Ni (98-161), and Cd (1.7-2.9).The Ethiopian fennel fruits are rich in Ca and Mg and other essential elements (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) and can be used as good supplement for human being in particularly for children and pregnant women.Thus, Ethiopian fennel fruits are safe for human consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Wolayta Sodo University, P.O. Box: 138, Wolayta Sodo, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is one of the precious spices. Almost all parts of fennel plant are edible. The herb is used as carminative, digestive, diuretic, cosmetic and medicine.

Methods: A 0.5 g of the oven dried fennel fruit and soil samples were digested by wet-digestion method. The levels of selected elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) were determined in sweet fennel fruit (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) and soil from Addis Ababa (Central Ethiopia) and Gojjam (Northern West Ethiopia) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

Results: The elemental concentrations (μg/g) in fennel fruit were: Ca (20,500-23,000), Mg (1,310-3,460), Fe (1,140-1,900), Mn (31-51), Cu (24-103), Cr (91-98), Co (26-71), Zn (37-45), Ni (19-24), and Cd (1.6-1.9) while in the soil were: Ca (1,440-1,780), Mg (1,260-3,310), Fe (26,900-28,000), Mn (1,460-1,980), Cu (51-101), Cr (127-141), Co (54-143), Zn (99-104), Ni (98-161), and Cd (1.7-2.9). Pb was below the method detection limit in both the fennel fruit and soil.

Conclusion: The Ethiopian fennel fruits are rich in Ca and Mg and other essential elements (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) and can be used as good supplement for human being in particularly for children and pregnant women. The toxic element Cd is at trace level and Pb is not detected in the fennel fruit. Thus, Ethiopian fennel fruits are safe for human consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus