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Pu-erh tea down-regulates sterol regulatory element-binding protein and stearyol-CoA desaturase to reduce fat storage in Caenorhaditis elegans.

Ding Y, Zou X, Jiang X, Wu J, Zhang Y, Chen D, Liang B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Consumption of Pu-erh has been reported to result in numerous health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying purported weight-loss and lowering of lipid are poorly understood.We found that PTE down-regulates the expression of the master fat regulator SBP-1, a homologue of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme in fat biosynthesis, leading to an increased ratio of stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9), and subsequently decreased fat storage.Collectively, these results provide an experimental basis for explaining the ability of Pu-erh tea in promoting inhibition of food uptake and the biosynthesis of fat via SBP-1 and SCD, thereby reducing fat storage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of Pu-erh has been reported to result in numerous health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying purported weight-loss and lowering of lipid are poorly understood. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhaditis elegans to explore the water extract of Pu-erh tea (PTE) functions to reduce fat storage. We found that PTE down-regulates the expression of the master fat regulator SBP-1, a homologue of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme in fat biosynthesis, leading to an increased ratio of stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9), and subsequently decreased fat storage. We also found that both the pharyngeal pumping rate and food uptake of C. elegans decreased with exposure to PTE. Collectively, these results provide an experimental basis for explaining the ability of Pu-erh tea in promoting inhibition of food uptake and the biosynthesis of fat via SBP-1 and SCD, thereby reducing fat storage.

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PTE down-regulated the expression of SBP-1 and SCD.(a) PTE did not affect the expression of FAT-6::GFP (around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates), but gradually decreased the fluorescent intensity of FAT-7::GFP and SBP-1::GFP (> 80% worms showed consistent reduction of expression, around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates). Scale bar is 20 μm. (b) Relative expression levels of sbp-1, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7 measured by QPCR were significantly decreased with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (*: P<0.05, **: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (c) Relative expression levels of pod-2 and fasn-1 measured by QPCR. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (d) Fat storage indicated by Nile Red staining of fixation was gradually decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms with the increased concentrations of PTE. The anterior is in left and the posterior is in the right. Scale bar is 10 μm. (e) Lipid droplet size was significantly decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms, with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of 6 worms. (**: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (f) % of TAG/TL of fat-6;fat-7 and sbp-1 mutants treated with PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates. (g) PTE significantly decreased the fat content of KQ377 worms. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates.
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pone.0113815.g003: PTE down-regulated the expression of SBP-1 and SCD.(a) PTE did not affect the expression of FAT-6::GFP (around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates), but gradually decreased the fluorescent intensity of FAT-7::GFP and SBP-1::GFP (> 80% worms showed consistent reduction of expression, around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates). Scale bar is 20 μm. (b) Relative expression levels of sbp-1, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7 measured by QPCR were significantly decreased with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (*: P<0.05, **: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (c) Relative expression levels of pod-2 and fasn-1 measured by QPCR. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (d) Fat storage indicated by Nile Red staining of fixation was gradually decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms with the increased concentrations of PTE. The anterior is in left and the posterior is in the right. Scale bar is 10 μm. (e) Lipid droplet size was significantly decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms, with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of 6 worms. (**: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (f) % of TAG/TL of fat-6;fat-7 and sbp-1 mutants treated with PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates. (g) PTE significantly decreased the fat content of KQ377 worms. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates.

Mentions: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a key enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) to palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7) and oleic acid (C18:1n-9)[38], respectively. As we noted earlier, PTE increased the level of stearic acid (C18:0) (Fig. 2A) while also decreased the level of oleic acid (C18:1 n9) (Fig. 2A and 2C) and the ratio of C18:1n-9/C18:0 (Fig. 2B and 2D). We accordingly investigated the effect of PTE on SCD. Totally, C. elegans genome contains three scd genes, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7[31,32], with FAT-5 mainly converting palmitic acid (C16:0) to palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), and both FAT-6 and FAT-7 converting stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9)[39]. We treated fat-6::GFP and fat-7::GFP transgenic worms[32] with different concentrations of PTE, and noticed that while the fluorescence intensity of FAT-6::GFP was not changed with increased concentrations of PTE, that of FAT-7::GFP dramatically decreased (Representative samples were shown in Fig. 3A). QPCR indicated that the expression of all three scd genes, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7, were significantly decreased by administration of PTE as compared to the control worms (Fig. 3B).


Pu-erh tea down-regulates sterol regulatory element-binding protein and stearyol-CoA desaturase to reduce fat storage in Caenorhaditis elegans.

Ding Y, Zou X, Jiang X, Wu J, Zhang Y, Chen D, Liang B - PLoS ONE (2015)

PTE down-regulated the expression of SBP-1 and SCD.(a) PTE did not affect the expression of FAT-6::GFP (around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates), but gradually decreased the fluorescent intensity of FAT-7::GFP and SBP-1::GFP (> 80% worms showed consistent reduction of expression, around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates). Scale bar is 20 μm. (b) Relative expression levels of sbp-1, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7 measured by QPCR were significantly decreased with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (*: P<0.05, **: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (c) Relative expression levels of pod-2 and fasn-1 measured by QPCR. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (d) Fat storage indicated by Nile Red staining of fixation was gradually decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms with the increased concentrations of PTE. The anterior is in left and the posterior is in the right. Scale bar is 10 μm. (e) Lipid droplet size was significantly decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms, with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of 6 worms. (**: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (f) % of TAG/TL of fat-6;fat-7 and sbp-1 mutants treated with PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates. (g) PTE significantly decreased the fat content of KQ377 worms. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates.
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pone.0113815.g003: PTE down-regulated the expression of SBP-1 and SCD.(a) PTE did not affect the expression of FAT-6::GFP (around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates), but gradually decreased the fluorescent intensity of FAT-7::GFP and SBP-1::GFP (> 80% worms showed consistent reduction of expression, around 60 worms totally observed in three biological replicates). Scale bar is 20 μm. (b) Relative expression levels of sbp-1, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7 measured by QPCR were significantly decreased with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (*: P<0.05, **: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (c) Relative expression levels of pod-2 and fasn-1 measured by QPCR. Data were the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates. (d) Fat storage indicated by Nile Red staining of fixation was gradually decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms with the increased concentrations of PTE. The anterior is in left and the posterior is in the right. Scale bar is 10 μm. (e) Lipid droplet size was significantly decreased in N2 worms, but not in sbp-1 and fat-6;fat-7 worms, with the increased concentrations of PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of 6 worms. (**: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001). (f) % of TAG/TL of fat-6;fat-7 and sbp-1 mutants treated with PTE. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates. (g) PTE significantly decreased the fat content of KQ377 worms. Data were the mean ± SEM of four independent biological replicates.
Mentions: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a key enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) to palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7) and oleic acid (C18:1n-9)[38], respectively. As we noted earlier, PTE increased the level of stearic acid (C18:0) (Fig. 2A) while also decreased the level of oleic acid (C18:1 n9) (Fig. 2A and 2C) and the ratio of C18:1n-9/C18:0 (Fig. 2B and 2D). We accordingly investigated the effect of PTE on SCD. Totally, C. elegans genome contains three scd genes, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7[31,32], with FAT-5 mainly converting palmitic acid (C16:0) to palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), and both FAT-6 and FAT-7 converting stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9)[39]. We treated fat-6::GFP and fat-7::GFP transgenic worms[32] with different concentrations of PTE, and noticed that while the fluorescence intensity of FAT-6::GFP was not changed with increased concentrations of PTE, that of FAT-7::GFP dramatically decreased (Representative samples were shown in Fig. 3A). QPCR indicated that the expression of all three scd genes, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7, were significantly decreased by administration of PTE as compared to the control worms (Fig. 3B).

Bottom Line: Consumption of Pu-erh has been reported to result in numerous health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying purported weight-loss and lowering of lipid are poorly understood.We found that PTE down-regulates the expression of the master fat regulator SBP-1, a homologue of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme in fat biosynthesis, leading to an increased ratio of stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9), and subsequently decreased fat storage.Collectively, these results provide an experimental basis for explaining the ability of Pu-erh tea in promoting inhibition of food uptake and the biosynthesis of fat via SBP-1 and SCD, thereby reducing fat storage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of Pu-erh has been reported to result in numerous health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying purported weight-loss and lowering of lipid are poorly understood. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhaditis elegans to explore the water extract of Pu-erh tea (PTE) functions to reduce fat storage. We found that PTE down-regulates the expression of the master fat regulator SBP-1, a homologue of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme in fat biosynthesis, leading to an increased ratio of stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9), and subsequently decreased fat storage. We also found that both the pharyngeal pumping rate and food uptake of C. elegans decreased with exposure to PTE. Collectively, these results provide an experimental basis for explaining the ability of Pu-erh tea in promoting inhibition of food uptake and the biosynthesis of fat via SBP-1 and SCD, thereby reducing fat storage.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus