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Horizontal-vertical illusion in mental imagery: quantitative evidence.

Blanuša J, Zdravković S - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike these neuroimaging studies that demonstrate great similarity between the two processes, results obtained in behavioral studies have not always been consistent.This tendency intensified as the stimulus size increased.We hope that such precise measurements of mental representation might provide better understanding of reasoning that uses mental images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade Belgrade, Serbia ; Laboratory for Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad Novi Sad, Serbia.

ABSTRACT
The present study had two main goals: (1) to investigate the difference between perception and mental imagery using a visual illusion as a stimulus; (2) to inspect gender related differences in perception and imagery. Our main hypothesis, that there would be no differences between perception and mental imagery, was motivated by previous neuroimaging data. Unlike these neuroimaging studies that demonstrate great similarity between the two processes, results obtained in behavioral studies have not always been consistent. We assumed that this inconsistency was a consequence of methodological differences. Hence, we explored the two processes with a modified behavioral procedure. The additional exploration of gender differences was motivated by the discrepancy between our findings and the existing literature. In two experiments, participants estimated the lines constituting the horizontal-vertical illusion, either in perception or imagery task. Results confirmed that there was no significant difference between perception and imagery: the illusion was equally strong in both tasks. In the second experiment, an additional factor was tested, stimulus size. The results showed that, although there was no significant difference in illusion strength, there was a gender difference in the size of mental image for medium and large stimuli. While male subjects performed equally in the two tasks, female subjects tended to underestimate size in the imagery task. This tendency intensified as the stimulus size increased. Our results not only inform us about the status of illusions in imagery but also offer some answers about the spatial nature of mental representations. We hope that such precise measurements of mental representation might provide better understanding of reasoning that uses mental images.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Three-way interactions in the analysis of size in Experiment 2. Results show clear difference between male (left) and female (right) participants in the two tasks (depicted by the two lines on the graph). The discrepancy between the two task increases on the right graph with stimuli size. Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals.
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Figure 5: Three-way interactions in the analysis of size in Experiment 2. Results show clear difference between male (left) and female (right) participants in the two tasks (depicted by the two lines on the graph). The discrepancy between the two task increases on the right graph with stimuli size. Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals.

Mentions: The most interesting result is a significant 3-way interaction between Stimuli size, Modality and Gender, indicating that depending on the size, male and female participants produced different matches in perception and imagery task (Figure 5).


Horizontal-vertical illusion in mental imagery: quantitative evidence.

Blanuša J, Zdravković S - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Three-way interactions in the analysis of size in Experiment 2. Results show clear difference between male (left) and female (right) participants in the two tasks (depicted by the two lines on the graph). The discrepancy between the two task increases on the right graph with stimuli size. Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4319382&req=5

Figure 5: Three-way interactions in the analysis of size in Experiment 2. Results show clear difference between male (left) and female (right) participants in the two tasks (depicted by the two lines on the graph). The discrepancy between the two task increases on the right graph with stimuli size. Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals.
Mentions: The most interesting result is a significant 3-way interaction between Stimuli size, Modality and Gender, indicating that depending on the size, male and female participants produced different matches in perception and imagery task (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Unlike these neuroimaging studies that demonstrate great similarity between the two processes, results obtained in behavioral studies have not always been consistent.This tendency intensified as the stimulus size increased.We hope that such precise measurements of mental representation might provide better understanding of reasoning that uses mental images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade Belgrade, Serbia ; Laboratory for Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad Novi Sad, Serbia.

ABSTRACT
The present study had two main goals: (1) to investigate the difference between perception and mental imagery using a visual illusion as a stimulus; (2) to inspect gender related differences in perception and imagery. Our main hypothesis, that there would be no differences between perception and mental imagery, was motivated by previous neuroimaging data. Unlike these neuroimaging studies that demonstrate great similarity between the two processes, results obtained in behavioral studies have not always been consistent. We assumed that this inconsistency was a consequence of methodological differences. Hence, we explored the two processes with a modified behavioral procedure. The additional exploration of gender differences was motivated by the discrepancy between our findings and the existing literature. In two experiments, participants estimated the lines constituting the horizontal-vertical illusion, either in perception or imagery task. Results confirmed that there was no significant difference between perception and imagery: the illusion was equally strong in both tasks. In the second experiment, an additional factor was tested, stimulus size. The results showed that, although there was no significant difference in illusion strength, there was a gender difference in the size of mental image for medium and large stimuli. While male subjects performed equally in the two tasks, female subjects tended to underestimate size in the imagery task. This tendency intensified as the stimulus size increased. Our results not only inform us about the status of illusions in imagery but also offer some answers about the spatial nature of mental representations. We hope that such precise measurements of mental representation might provide better understanding of reasoning that uses mental images.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus