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Concentration of tobacco advertisements at SNAP and WIC stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012.

Hillier A, Chilton M, Zhao QW, Szymkowiak D, Coffman R, Mallya G - Prev Chronic Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas.Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets.Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania School of Design, 127 Meyerson Hall, 210 S 34th St, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Email: ahillier@design.upenn.edu.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tobacco advertising is widespread in urban areas with racial/ethnic minority and low-income households that participate in nutrition assistance programs. Tobacco sales and advertising are linked to smoking behavior, which may complicate matters for low-income families struggling with disparate health risks relating to nutrition and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between the amount and type of tobacco advertisements on tobacco outlets and the outlet type and location.

Methods: By using field visits and online images, we inspected all licensed tobacco retail outlets in Philadelphia (N = 4,639). Point pattern analyses were used to identify significant clustering of tobacco outlets and outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the outlet's acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the presence of tobacco advertisements.

Results: Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas. Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets.

Conclusion: Tobacco advertising is widespread at retail outlets, particularly in low-income and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods. Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Clustering of tobacco outlets and tobacco advertisements relative to high-poverty areas and zip codes with above-average smoking rates, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012. Ripley’s local K-function with search radii of 2,500 ft was used to test for significant clustering of outlets.
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Figure 1: Clustering of tobacco outlets and tobacco advertisements relative to high-poverty areas and zip codes with above-average smoking rates, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012. Ripley’s local K-function with search radii of 2,500 ft was used to test for significant clustering of outlets.

Mentions: The Ripley’s local K-function showed significant clustering of tobacco outlets relative to population distribution and outlets with outdoor tobacco advertisements relative to the distribution of tobacco outlets. The Figure shows significant clustering of tobacco outlets based on a search radius of 2,500 ft in parts of North, South, and West Philadelphia and Center City. The Figure also shows significant clustering of exterior tobacco advertisements relative to the distribution of tobacco outlets in subsections of some of those areas, in particular in Kensington and South Philadelphia. Nearly all of the areas showing significant clustering — with the exception of commercial areas with low residential populations in Center City and South and Southwest Philadelphia — had poverty rates above 25%. Many of those areas also demonstrated above-average smoking rates.


Concentration of tobacco advertisements at SNAP and WIC stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012.

Hillier A, Chilton M, Zhao QW, Szymkowiak D, Coffman R, Mallya G - Prev Chronic Dis (2015)

Clustering of tobacco outlets and tobacco advertisements relative to high-poverty areas and zip codes with above-average smoking rates, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012. Ripley’s local K-function with search radii of 2,500 ft was used to test for significant clustering of outlets.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4318686&req=5

Figure 1: Clustering of tobacco outlets and tobacco advertisements relative to high-poverty areas and zip codes with above-average smoking rates, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012. Ripley’s local K-function with search radii of 2,500 ft was used to test for significant clustering of outlets.
Mentions: The Ripley’s local K-function showed significant clustering of tobacco outlets relative to population distribution and outlets with outdoor tobacco advertisements relative to the distribution of tobacco outlets. The Figure shows significant clustering of tobacco outlets based on a search radius of 2,500 ft in parts of North, South, and West Philadelphia and Center City. The Figure also shows significant clustering of exterior tobacco advertisements relative to the distribution of tobacco outlets in subsections of some of those areas, in particular in Kensington and South Philadelphia. Nearly all of the areas showing significant clustering — with the exception of commercial areas with low residential populations in Center City and South and Southwest Philadelphia — had poverty rates above 25%. Many of those areas also demonstrated above-average smoking rates.

Bottom Line: Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas.Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets.Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania School of Design, 127 Meyerson Hall, 210 S 34th St, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Email: ahillier@design.upenn.edu.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tobacco advertising is widespread in urban areas with racial/ethnic minority and low-income households that participate in nutrition assistance programs. Tobacco sales and advertising are linked to smoking behavior, which may complicate matters for low-income families struggling with disparate health risks relating to nutrition and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between the amount and type of tobacco advertisements on tobacco outlets and the outlet type and location.

Methods: By using field visits and online images, we inspected all licensed tobacco retail outlets in Philadelphia (N = 4,639). Point pattern analyses were used to identify significant clustering of tobacco outlets and outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the outlet's acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the presence of tobacco advertisements.

Results: Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas. Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets.

Conclusion: Tobacco advertising is widespread at retail outlets, particularly in low-income and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods. Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus