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The early fetal development of human neocortical GABAergic interneurons.

Al-Jaberi N, Lindsay S, Sarma S, Bayatti N, Clowry GJ - Cereb. Cortex (2013)

Bottom Line: CALB2-positive cells increased steadily in the SVZ/VZ from 10 PCW but were not double-labeled with Ki-67.Expression of GABAergic genes was generally higher in the dorsal pallium than in the ganglionic eminences, with lower expression in the intervening ventral pallium.It is widely accepted that the cortical proliferative zones may generate CALB2-positive interneurons from mid-gestation; we now show that the anterior neocortical proliferative layers especially may be a rich source of interneurons in the early neocortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK.

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Expression gradients for GABAergic genes shown by in situ hybridization. Examples of DLX expression are shown in lateral sagittal sections at 8 PCW (A,B). There was moderate expression in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) but weakest expression at the boundaries between ventral pallium (VP) and LGE before moderate expression resumes in the VZ and SVZ, and strong expression was observed in the cortical plate (CP) of the VP and dorsal pallium (DP). A gradient of expression from anterior (Ant) to posterior (Pos) poles of the cortex was also discernible. GAD1 expression was shown at 9 PCW in a medial section (C). In subcortical structures, expression was relatively strong in the lateral and medial (MGE) ganglionic eminences, and in the thalamus (Th) but weak in the prethalamus (PrTh). There was less expression at the boundary of the LGE with the cortex (ventral pallium, VP) but relatively high expression in the anterior cortical wall compared with the posterior. Higher magnification images show GAD1 expression throughout the anterior cortical wall but highest in the SVZ and CP where many, but not all, cells appear stained. In the early subplate and intermediate zone (SP/IZ), an area of low cellular density, heavily stained cells are discernible, while in the VZ only a few moderately stained cells can be seen. In the posterior cortical wall, the pattern was similar although staining was less intense. Scale bar represents 100 μm in high-magnification images and 800 μm at low magnification. The orientation of all the section images are the same, hence Ant and Pos are the same as indicated in A.
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BHT254F3: Expression gradients for GABAergic genes shown by in situ hybridization. Examples of DLX expression are shown in lateral sagittal sections at 8 PCW (A,B). There was moderate expression in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) but weakest expression at the boundaries between ventral pallium (VP) and LGE before moderate expression resumes in the VZ and SVZ, and strong expression was observed in the cortical plate (CP) of the VP and dorsal pallium (DP). A gradient of expression from anterior (Ant) to posterior (Pos) poles of the cortex was also discernible. GAD1 expression was shown at 9 PCW in a medial section (C). In subcortical structures, expression was relatively strong in the lateral and medial (MGE) ganglionic eminences, and in the thalamus (Th) but weak in the prethalamus (PrTh). There was less expression at the boundary of the LGE with the cortex (ventral pallium, VP) but relatively high expression in the anterior cortical wall compared with the posterior. Higher magnification images show GAD1 expression throughout the anterior cortical wall but highest in the SVZ and CP where many, but not all, cells appear stained. In the early subplate and intermediate zone (SP/IZ), an area of low cellular density, heavily stained cells are discernible, while in the VZ only a few moderately stained cells can be seen. In the posterior cortical wall, the pattern was similar although staining was less intense. Scale bar represents 100 μm in high-magnification images and 800 μm at low magnification. The orientation of all the section images are the same, hence Ant and Pos are the same as indicated in A.

Mentions: Consistent patterns of expression over time were also observed (Fig. 2). Nearly all genes showed increasing expression with age. In most cases, anterior and posterior expression levels increased in parallel, although anterior was consistently higher than posterior. For some genes, notably DLX1, DLX5, and GABRB3, expression at the anterior pole increased at a faster rate than at the posterior pole. ISH studies confirmed the expression of 4 of these genes, DLX1, 2, and 5 and GAD1, and all showed gradients of expression from anterior to posterior poles at 8 and 9 PCW (Fig. 3, DLX2 not shown). Although expression of these genes was detected by ISH in the GE, as would be expected from animal studies, expression was higher in the neocortex, particularly at the anterior pole.Figure 2.


The early fetal development of human neocortical GABAergic interneurons.

Al-Jaberi N, Lindsay S, Sarma S, Bayatti N, Clowry GJ - Cereb. Cortex (2013)

Expression gradients for GABAergic genes shown by in situ hybridization. Examples of DLX expression are shown in lateral sagittal sections at 8 PCW (A,B). There was moderate expression in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) but weakest expression at the boundaries between ventral pallium (VP) and LGE before moderate expression resumes in the VZ and SVZ, and strong expression was observed in the cortical plate (CP) of the VP and dorsal pallium (DP). A gradient of expression from anterior (Ant) to posterior (Pos) poles of the cortex was also discernible. GAD1 expression was shown at 9 PCW in a medial section (C). In subcortical structures, expression was relatively strong in the lateral and medial (MGE) ganglionic eminences, and in the thalamus (Th) but weak in the prethalamus (PrTh). There was less expression at the boundary of the LGE with the cortex (ventral pallium, VP) but relatively high expression in the anterior cortical wall compared with the posterior. Higher magnification images show GAD1 expression throughout the anterior cortical wall but highest in the SVZ and CP where many, but not all, cells appear stained. In the early subplate and intermediate zone (SP/IZ), an area of low cellular density, heavily stained cells are discernible, while in the VZ only a few moderately stained cells can be seen. In the posterior cortical wall, the pattern was similar although staining was less intense. Scale bar represents 100 μm in high-magnification images and 800 μm at low magnification. The orientation of all the section images are the same, hence Ant and Pos are the same as indicated in A.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4318531&req=5

BHT254F3: Expression gradients for GABAergic genes shown by in situ hybridization. Examples of DLX expression are shown in lateral sagittal sections at 8 PCW (A,B). There was moderate expression in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) but weakest expression at the boundaries between ventral pallium (VP) and LGE before moderate expression resumes in the VZ and SVZ, and strong expression was observed in the cortical plate (CP) of the VP and dorsal pallium (DP). A gradient of expression from anterior (Ant) to posterior (Pos) poles of the cortex was also discernible. GAD1 expression was shown at 9 PCW in a medial section (C). In subcortical structures, expression was relatively strong in the lateral and medial (MGE) ganglionic eminences, and in the thalamus (Th) but weak in the prethalamus (PrTh). There was less expression at the boundary of the LGE with the cortex (ventral pallium, VP) but relatively high expression in the anterior cortical wall compared with the posterior. Higher magnification images show GAD1 expression throughout the anterior cortical wall but highest in the SVZ and CP where many, but not all, cells appear stained. In the early subplate and intermediate zone (SP/IZ), an area of low cellular density, heavily stained cells are discernible, while in the VZ only a few moderately stained cells can be seen. In the posterior cortical wall, the pattern was similar although staining was less intense. Scale bar represents 100 μm in high-magnification images and 800 μm at low magnification. The orientation of all the section images are the same, hence Ant and Pos are the same as indicated in A.
Mentions: Consistent patterns of expression over time were also observed (Fig. 2). Nearly all genes showed increasing expression with age. In most cases, anterior and posterior expression levels increased in parallel, although anterior was consistently higher than posterior. For some genes, notably DLX1, DLX5, and GABRB3, expression at the anterior pole increased at a faster rate than at the posterior pole. ISH studies confirmed the expression of 4 of these genes, DLX1, 2, and 5 and GAD1, and all showed gradients of expression from anterior to posterior poles at 8 and 9 PCW (Fig. 3, DLX2 not shown). Although expression of these genes was detected by ISH in the GE, as would be expected from animal studies, expression was higher in the neocortex, particularly at the anterior pole.Figure 2.

Bottom Line: CALB2-positive cells increased steadily in the SVZ/VZ from 10 PCW but were not double-labeled with Ki-67.Expression of GABAergic genes was generally higher in the dorsal pallium than in the ganglionic eminences, with lower expression in the intervening ventral pallium.It is widely accepted that the cortical proliferative zones may generate CALB2-positive interneurons from mid-gestation; we now show that the anterior neocortical proliferative layers especially may be a rich source of interneurons in the early neocortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus