Limits...
The early fetal development of human neocortical GABAergic interneurons.

Al-Jaberi N, Lindsay S, Sarma S, Bayatti N, Clowry GJ - Cereb. Cortex (2013)

Bottom Line: CALB2-positive cells increased steadily in the SVZ/VZ from 10 PCW but were not double-labeled with Ki-67.Expression of GABAergic genes was generally higher in the dorsal pallium than in the ganglionic eminences, with lower expression in the intervening ventral pallium.It is widely accepted that the cortical proliferative zones may generate CALB2-positive interneurons from mid-gestation; we now show that the anterior neocortical proliferative layers especially may be a rich source of interneurons in the early neocortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

qPCR confirmation of gradients of GABAergic gene expression between 8 and 12 PCW, and comparison with microarray and RNA seq data from previous studies. The mean expression of the genes of interest, relative to the average expression of 3 reference genes, β-ACTIN, GAPDH, and SDHA, from RNA samples taken from the anterior and posterior poles of the human neocortex between 8 and 12 PCW, is shown for qPCR data collected in the present study (A, n = 8 fetuses) Affymetrix microarray (B, n = 6, Ip et al. 2010) and RNA seq (C, n = 4, http://brainspan.org/rnaseq/search/index.html). The general patterns of expression are the same for all 3 studies, although the qPCR study shows less experimental variability and thus detected differences between the anterior and posterior poles with greater confidence. Clear evidence is provided for higher anterior expression of all GABAergic genes at this time. FGFR3 expression is included as an example of a posteriorly expressed gene. **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, error bars represent 95% confidence limits. Note that the chart is plotted on a logarithmic scale resulting in asymmetric error bars.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4318531&req=5

BHT254F1: qPCR confirmation of gradients of GABAergic gene expression between 8 and 12 PCW, and comparison with microarray and RNA seq data from previous studies. The mean expression of the genes of interest, relative to the average expression of 3 reference genes, β-ACTIN, GAPDH, and SDHA, from RNA samples taken from the anterior and posterior poles of the human neocortex between 8 and 12 PCW, is shown for qPCR data collected in the present study (A, n = 8 fetuses) Affymetrix microarray (B, n = 6, Ip et al. 2010) and RNA seq (C, n = 4, http://brainspan.org/rnaseq/search/index.html). The general patterns of expression are the same for all 3 studies, although the qPCR study shows less experimental variability and thus detected differences between the anterior and posterior poles with greater confidence. Clear evidence is provided for higher anterior expression of all GABAergic genes at this time. FGFR3 expression is included as an example of a posteriorly expressed gene. **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, error bars represent 95% confidence limits. Note that the chart is plotted on a logarithmic scale resulting in asymmetric error bars.

Mentions: A qPCR study was carried out to validate and extend the results obtained from our previous microarray study (Ip et al. 2010). In addition, we accessed publically available RNA seq data (http://brainspan.org/rnaseq/search/index.html) at the relevant developmental time points, and expressed all 3 datasets in a way that makes them comparable (Fig. 1). All 3 approaches gave broadly similar patterns of gene expression with nearly all GABAergic genes selected for study showing higher expression at the anterior compared with the posterior pole. However, this only reached statistical significance for all markers in the qPCR study. This validates the approach of collecting global gene expression data by microarray or whole RNA sequencing as a way of discovering potentially interesting patterns of gene expression. Nevertheless, confirmation by qPCR and other methods are still required.Figure 1.


The early fetal development of human neocortical GABAergic interneurons.

Al-Jaberi N, Lindsay S, Sarma S, Bayatti N, Clowry GJ - Cereb. Cortex (2013)

qPCR confirmation of gradients of GABAergic gene expression between 8 and 12 PCW, and comparison with microarray and RNA seq data from previous studies. The mean expression of the genes of interest, relative to the average expression of 3 reference genes, β-ACTIN, GAPDH, and SDHA, from RNA samples taken from the anterior and posterior poles of the human neocortex between 8 and 12 PCW, is shown for qPCR data collected in the present study (A, n = 8 fetuses) Affymetrix microarray (B, n = 6, Ip et al. 2010) and RNA seq (C, n = 4, http://brainspan.org/rnaseq/search/index.html). The general patterns of expression are the same for all 3 studies, although the qPCR study shows less experimental variability and thus detected differences between the anterior and posterior poles with greater confidence. Clear evidence is provided for higher anterior expression of all GABAergic genes at this time. FGFR3 expression is included as an example of a posteriorly expressed gene. **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, error bars represent 95% confidence limits. Note that the chart is plotted on a logarithmic scale resulting in asymmetric error bars.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4318531&req=5

BHT254F1: qPCR confirmation of gradients of GABAergic gene expression between 8 and 12 PCW, and comparison with microarray and RNA seq data from previous studies. The mean expression of the genes of interest, relative to the average expression of 3 reference genes, β-ACTIN, GAPDH, and SDHA, from RNA samples taken from the anterior and posterior poles of the human neocortex between 8 and 12 PCW, is shown for qPCR data collected in the present study (A, n = 8 fetuses) Affymetrix microarray (B, n = 6, Ip et al. 2010) and RNA seq (C, n = 4, http://brainspan.org/rnaseq/search/index.html). The general patterns of expression are the same for all 3 studies, although the qPCR study shows less experimental variability and thus detected differences between the anterior and posterior poles with greater confidence. Clear evidence is provided for higher anterior expression of all GABAergic genes at this time. FGFR3 expression is included as an example of a posteriorly expressed gene. **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, error bars represent 95% confidence limits. Note that the chart is plotted on a logarithmic scale resulting in asymmetric error bars.
Mentions: A qPCR study was carried out to validate and extend the results obtained from our previous microarray study (Ip et al. 2010). In addition, we accessed publically available RNA seq data (http://brainspan.org/rnaseq/search/index.html) at the relevant developmental time points, and expressed all 3 datasets in a way that makes them comparable (Fig. 1). All 3 approaches gave broadly similar patterns of gene expression with nearly all GABAergic genes selected for study showing higher expression at the anterior compared with the posterior pole. However, this only reached statistical significance for all markers in the qPCR study. This validates the approach of collecting global gene expression data by microarray or whole RNA sequencing as a way of discovering potentially interesting patterns of gene expression. Nevertheless, confirmation by qPCR and other methods are still required.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: CALB2-positive cells increased steadily in the SVZ/VZ from 10 PCW but were not double-labeled with Ki-67.Expression of GABAergic genes was generally higher in the dorsal pallium than in the ganglionic eminences, with lower expression in the intervening ventral pallium.It is widely accepted that the cortical proliferative zones may generate CALB2-positive interneurons from mid-gestation; we now show that the anterior neocortical proliferative layers especially may be a rich source of interneurons in the early neocortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus