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Reduced pulmonary function and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nanoscale carbon black-exposed workers.

Zhang R, Dai Y, Zhang X, Niu Y, Meng T, Li Y, Duan H, Bin P, Ye M, Jia X, Shen M, Yu S, Yang X, Gao W, Zheng Y - Part Fibre Toxicol (2014)

Bottom Line: The reduction of lung function parameters including FEV1%, FEV/FVC, MMF%, and PEF% in CB workers was observed, and the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1beta, and TNF- alpha had 2.86-, 6.85-, 1.49-, 3.35-, and 4.87-folds increase in serum of CB workers, respectively.The data strongly suggests that nanoscale CB particles could be responsible for the lung function reduction and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in CB workers.These results, therefore, provide the first evidence of a link between human exposure to CB and long-term pulmonary effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nanwei Road, Beijing, 100050, China. zhangr-wh@126.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although major concerns exist regarding the potential consequences of human exposures to nanoscale carbon black (CB) particles, limited human toxicological data is currently available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if nanoscale CB particles could be responsible, at least partially, for the altered lung function and inflammation observed in CB workers exposed to nanoscale CB particles.

Methods: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were used to characterize CB. Eighty-one CB-exposed male workers and 104 non-exposed male workers were recruited. The pulmonary function test was performed and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. To further assess the deposition and pulmonary damage induced by CB nanoparticles, male BALB/c mice were exposed to CB for 6 hours per day for 7 or 14 days. The deposition of CB and the pathological changes of the lung tissue in mice were evaluated by paraffin sections and TEM. The cytokines levels in serum and lung tissue of mice were evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining (IHC).

Results: SEM and TEM images showed that the CB particles were 30 to 50 nm in size. In the CB workplace, the concentration of CB was 14.90 mg/m³. Among these CB particles, 50.77% were less than 0.523 micrometer, and 99.55% were less than 2.5 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter. The reduction of lung function parameters including FEV1%, FEV/FVC, MMF%, and PEF% in CB workers was observed, and the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1beta, and TNF- alpha had 2.86-, 6.85-, 1.49-, 3.35-, and 4.87-folds increase in serum of CB workers, respectively. In mice exposed to the aerosol CB, particles were deposited in the lung. The alveolar wall thickened and a large amount of inflammatory cells were observed in lung tissues after CB exposure. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were increased in both serum and lung homogenate.

Conclusions: The data strongly suggests that nanoscale CB particles could be responsible for the lung function reduction and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in CB workers. These results, therefore, provide the first evidence of a link between human exposure to CB and long-term pulmonary effects.

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The levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in serum and the lung tissue of mice after CB exposure for different time and recovery for 14 d after 14 d CB exposure. A: The levels of IL-8 in serum of mice. B: The levels of IL-8 in the lung tissue of mice. C: The levels of IL-6 in serum of mice. D: The levels of IL-6 in the lung tissue of mice. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Multi-group comparisons of the means were carried out by a one-way analysis of variance test followed by SNK’s multiple comparison tests. * P < 0.05 compared to the control group.
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Fig2: The levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in serum and the lung tissue of mice after CB exposure for different time and recovery for 14 d after 14 d CB exposure. A: The levels of IL-8 in serum of mice. B: The levels of IL-8 in the lung tissue of mice. C: The levels of IL-6 in serum of mice. D: The levels of IL-6 in the lung tissue of mice. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Multi-group comparisons of the means were carried out by a one-way analysis of variance test followed by SNK’s multiple comparison tests. * P < 0.05 compared to the control group.

Mentions: The changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum and lung homogenate or lung tissue of mice were detected by ELISA or immunohistochemical staining (IHC), respectively. As shown in Figure 2, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 significantly increased in the 7 and 14 d CB exposure groups compared with the control groups (P < 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed for the levels of the IL-1β, MIP-1β, and TNF-α in CB exposure groups compared with the control groups (data not show). In the recovery group, the level of IL-6 in lung homogenate increased compared with the 14 d CB exposure group and the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of IL-8 in serum and lung homogenate increased compared with the control group (P < 0.05), but decreased compared with the 14 d CB exposure group (P < 0.05). From the images of IHC of lung tissues shown in Figure 3, the positive staining cells for IL-8 and IL-6 in the control group tended to be localized to the basal lamina of epithelial cells and in close proximity to the musculature of the vessels or airways, while there was little staining in the alveolar epithelial cells. In mice treated with CB for 7 and 14 d, there was a clear increase in the positive staining for IL-8 and IL-6 around airways and bronchium (Figure 3C2, C3, D2, and D3). In the recovery group, the IL-8 and IL-6 positive cells were similar to the CB exposure groups, but with less positive alveolar epithelial cells.Figure 2


Reduced pulmonary function and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nanoscale carbon black-exposed workers.

Zhang R, Dai Y, Zhang X, Niu Y, Meng T, Li Y, Duan H, Bin P, Ye M, Jia X, Shen M, Yu S, Yang X, Gao W, Zheng Y - Part Fibre Toxicol (2014)

The levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in serum and the lung tissue of mice after CB exposure for different time and recovery for 14 d after 14 d CB exposure. A: The levels of IL-8 in serum of mice. B: The levels of IL-8 in the lung tissue of mice. C: The levels of IL-6 in serum of mice. D: The levels of IL-6 in the lung tissue of mice. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Multi-group comparisons of the means were carried out by a one-way analysis of variance test followed by SNK’s multiple comparison tests. * P < 0.05 compared to the control group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4318129&req=5

Fig2: The levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in serum and the lung tissue of mice after CB exposure for different time and recovery for 14 d after 14 d CB exposure. A: The levels of IL-8 in serum of mice. B: The levels of IL-8 in the lung tissue of mice. C: The levels of IL-6 in serum of mice. D: The levels of IL-6 in the lung tissue of mice. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Multi-group comparisons of the means were carried out by a one-way analysis of variance test followed by SNK’s multiple comparison tests. * P < 0.05 compared to the control group.
Mentions: The changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum and lung homogenate or lung tissue of mice were detected by ELISA or immunohistochemical staining (IHC), respectively. As shown in Figure 2, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 significantly increased in the 7 and 14 d CB exposure groups compared with the control groups (P < 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed for the levels of the IL-1β, MIP-1β, and TNF-α in CB exposure groups compared with the control groups (data not show). In the recovery group, the level of IL-6 in lung homogenate increased compared with the 14 d CB exposure group and the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of IL-8 in serum and lung homogenate increased compared with the control group (P < 0.05), but decreased compared with the 14 d CB exposure group (P < 0.05). From the images of IHC of lung tissues shown in Figure 3, the positive staining cells for IL-8 and IL-6 in the control group tended to be localized to the basal lamina of epithelial cells and in close proximity to the musculature of the vessels or airways, while there was little staining in the alveolar epithelial cells. In mice treated with CB for 7 and 14 d, there was a clear increase in the positive staining for IL-8 and IL-6 around airways and bronchium (Figure 3C2, C3, D2, and D3). In the recovery group, the IL-8 and IL-6 positive cells were similar to the CB exposure groups, but with less positive alveolar epithelial cells.Figure 2

Bottom Line: The reduction of lung function parameters including FEV1%, FEV/FVC, MMF%, and PEF% in CB workers was observed, and the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1beta, and TNF- alpha had 2.86-, 6.85-, 1.49-, 3.35-, and 4.87-folds increase in serum of CB workers, respectively.The data strongly suggests that nanoscale CB particles could be responsible for the lung function reduction and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in CB workers.These results, therefore, provide the first evidence of a link between human exposure to CB and long-term pulmonary effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nanwei Road, Beijing, 100050, China. zhangr-wh@126.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although major concerns exist regarding the potential consequences of human exposures to nanoscale carbon black (CB) particles, limited human toxicological data is currently available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if nanoscale CB particles could be responsible, at least partially, for the altered lung function and inflammation observed in CB workers exposed to nanoscale CB particles.

Methods: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were used to characterize CB. Eighty-one CB-exposed male workers and 104 non-exposed male workers were recruited. The pulmonary function test was performed and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. To further assess the deposition and pulmonary damage induced by CB nanoparticles, male BALB/c mice were exposed to CB for 6 hours per day for 7 or 14 days. The deposition of CB and the pathological changes of the lung tissue in mice were evaluated by paraffin sections and TEM. The cytokines levels in serum and lung tissue of mice were evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining (IHC).

Results: SEM and TEM images showed that the CB particles were 30 to 50 nm in size. In the CB workplace, the concentration of CB was 14.90 mg/m³. Among these CB particles, 50.77% were less than 0.523 micrometer, and 99.55% were less than 2.5 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter. The reduction of lung function parameters including FEV1%, FEV/FVC, MMF%, and PEF% in CB workers was observed, and the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1beta, and TNF- alpha had 2.86-, 6.85-, 1.49-, 3.35-, and 4.87-folds increase in serum of CB workers, respectively. In mice exposed to the aerosol CB, particles were deposited in the lung. The alveolar wall thickened and a large amount of inflammatory cells were observed in lung tissues after CB exposure. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were increased in both serum and lung homogenate.

Conclusions: The data strongly suggests that nanoscale CB particles could be responsible for the lung function reduction and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in CB workers. These results, therefore, provide the first evidence of a link between human exposure to CB and long-term pulmonary effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus