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Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males.

Albrithen AA, Singleton EG - J Family Community Med (2015 Jan-Apr)

Bottom Line: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers.A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low.Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social Studies, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh.

Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12) is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors) of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12) and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD).

Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality) or Factor 3 (compulsiveness) increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low.

Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality) is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness) is an indicator of physical dependence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire-12 Factor 1 (emotionality)-by-Factor 3 (compulsiveness) interaction effect on heavy smoking (aCPD = cigarettes per day)
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Figure 1: Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire-12 Factor 1 (emotionality)-by-Factor 3 (compulsiveness) interaction effect on heavy smoking (aCPD = cigarettes per day)

Mentions: To ease interpretation of the interaction, Factors 1 and 3 scores were split at the mean to form high and low groups. CPD was reported in terms of the proportion of heavy smokers (i.e., the percentage of subjects that smoked >30 CPD). Figure 1 illustrates that only certain patterns of Factors 1 and 3 scores were correlated with heavy smoking. High scores on Factor 1 were significantly associated with increased heavy smoking only when Factor 3 scores were low. Conversely, high scores on Factor 3 were significantly associated with increased heavy smoking only when Factor 1 scores were low. This means that we cannot interpret the relationship between craving and heavy smoking without administering both subscales (emotionality and compulsiveness) simultaneously. This also means that we cannot describe the relationship between emotionality and heavy smoking without referring to compulsiveness. Likewise, if we want to talk about the effect of diet, we need to specify the intensity of compulsiveness we are dealing with.


Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males.

Albrithen AA, Singleton EG - J Family Community Med (2015 Jan-Apr)

Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire-12 Factor 1 (emotionality)-by-Factor 3 (compulsiveness) interaction effect on heavy smoking (aCPD = cigarettes per day)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317997&req=5

Figure 1: Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire-12 Factor 1 (emotionality)-by-Factor 3 (compulsiveness) interaction effect on heavy smoking (aCPD = cigarettes per day)
Mentions: To ease interpretation of the interaction, Factors 1 and 3 scores were split at the mean to form high and low groups. CPD was reported in terms of the proportion of heavy smokers (i.e., the percentage of subjects that smoked >30 CPD). Figure 1 illustrates that only certain patterns of Factors 1 and 3 scores were correlated with heavy smoking. High scores on Factor 1 were significantly associated with increased heavy smoking only when Factor 3 scores were low. Conversely, high scores on Factor 3 were significantly associated with increased heavy smoking only when Factor 1 scores were low. This means that we cannot interpret the relationship between craving and heavy smoking without administering both subscales (emotionality and compulsiveness) simultaneously. This also means that we cannot describe the relationship between emotionality and heavy smoking without referring to compulsiveness. Likewise, if we want to talk about the effect of diet, we need to specify the intensity of compulsiveness we are dealing with.

Bottom Line: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers.A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low.Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social Studies, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh.

Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12) is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors) of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12) and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD).

Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality) or Factor 3 (compulsiveness) increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low.

Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality) is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness) is an indicator of physical dependence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus