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Air nicotine levels in public places in ahmedabad, India: before and after implementation of the smoking ban.

Yang J, Modi BV, Tamplin SA, Aghi MB, Dave PV, Cohen JE - Indian J Community Med (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration.The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m(3) at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001).However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Gobal Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008.

Materials and methods: Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration.

Results: Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m(3) Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m(3) IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m(3) at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160).

Conclusion: Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Air nicotine concentrations (μg/m3) in public places before and after the smoking ban
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Figure 1: Air nicotine concentrations (μg/m3) in public places before and after the smoking ban

Mentions: In 2008, median air nicotine concentrations were highest in hookah bars (1.53 μg/m3, IQR: 0.63-3.13), followed by entertainment venues (0.17 μg/m3, IQR: 0.06-0.64), and lowest in educational institutes (0.00 μg/m3, IQR: 0.00-0.04) which was under the detectable level [Table 1]. The percentage change from 2008 to 2010 varied by venue-type. The largest decrease of SHS occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m3 at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up in 2010 (% decline = 100, P < 0.001). Educational institutes, which were under the limit of detection at baseline, had detectable concentrations of air nicotine at follow-up (P = 0.020) [Table 1 and Figure 1]. In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. Air nicotine levels declined in entertainment venues, from 0.17 μg/m3 at baseline to 0.05 μg/m3 at follow-up (% decline = 70.6, P = 0.172); in government offices, from 0.05 μg/m3 at baseline to 0.03 μg/m3 at follow-up (% decline = 40, P = 0.055); and in restaurants, from 0.13 μg/m3) at baseline to 0.11 μg/m3 at follow-up (% decline = 15.4, P = 0.177). However, in hookah bars, an increase in exposure to SHS was observed, as the air nicotine levels went from 1.53 μg/m3 at baseline to 3.77 μg/m3 at follow-up (P = 0.160).


Air nicotine levels in public places in ahmedabad, India: before and after implementation of the smoking ban.

Yang J, Modi BV, Tamplin SA, Aghi MB, Dave PV, Cohen JE - Indian J Community Med (2015 Jan-Mar)

Air nicotine concentrations (μg/m3) in public places before and after the smoking ban
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317977&req=5

Figure 1: Air nicotine concentrations (μg/m3) in public places before and after the smoking ban
Mentions: In 2008, median air nicotine concentrations were highest in hookah bars (1.53 μg/m3, IQR: 0.63-3.13), followed by entertainment venues (0.17 μg/m3, IQR: 0.06-0.64), and lowest in educational institutes (0.00 μg/m3, IQR: 0.00-0.04) which was under the detectable level [Table 1]. The percentage change from 2008 to 2010 varied by venue-type. The largest decrease of SHS occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m3 at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up in 2010 (% decline = 100, P < 0.001). Educational institutes, which were under the limit of detection at baseline, had detectable concentrations of air nicotine at follow-up (P = 0.020) [Table 1 and Figure 1]. In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. Air nicotine levels declined in entertainment venues, from 0.17 μg/m3 at baseline to 0.05 μg/m3 at follow-up (% decline = 70.6, P = 0.172); in government offices, from 0.05 μg/m3 at baseline to 0.03 μg/m3 at follow-up (% decline = 40, P = 0.055); and in restaurants, from 0.13 μg/m3) at baseline to 0.11 μg/m3 at follow-up (% decline = 15.4, P = 0.177). However, in hookah bars, an increase in exposure to SHS was observed, as the air nicotine levels went from 1.53 μg/m3 at baseline to 3.77 μg/m3 at follow-up (P = 0.160).

Bottom Line: In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration.The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m(3) at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001).However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Gobal Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008.

Materials and methods: Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration.

Results: Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m(3) Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m(3) IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m(3) at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160).

Conclusion: Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus