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De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development.

Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value.Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis.Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Fluorescence micrographs showing surface and transverse sections of ‘Ventura'.Lignin autofluorescence was visualized following ultraviolet excitation at 365 nm (Scale bar = 20 μm). (A), (C), (E): Fluorescence micrographs showing surface sections of leaf blade; (B), (D), (F): Fluorescence micrographs showing transverse sections of petiole. (A), (B): Stage 1 of ‘Ventura'; (C), (D): Stage 2 of ‘Ventura'; (E), (F): Stage 3 of ‘Ventura'. P: phloem; X: xylem.
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f8: Fluorescence micrographs showing surface and transverse sections of ‘Ventura'.Lignin autofluorescence was visualized following ultraviolet excitation at 365 nm (Scale bar = 20 μm). (A), (C), (E): Fluorescence micrographs showing surface sections of leaf blade; (B), (D), (F): Fluorescence micrographs showing transverse sections of petiole. (A), (B): Stage 1 of ‘Ventura'; (C), (D): Stage 2 of ‘Ventura'; (E), (F): Stage 3 of ‘Ventura'. P: phloem; X: xylem.

Mentions: The UV-excited fluorescence in the leaf blades and petioles of celery is shown in Figure 8. Autofluorescence was easily observed in the leaves at the three stages. Lignin fluorescence was observed in the vascular bundles and cell walls, and a strong intensity was detected in the xylem. No difference was detected in the location or intensity of lignin autofluorescence in the cell walls of the leaf blades among the three stages (Figure 8A, C, and E). The vascular bundles in the petioles expanded with development and were intensely located in the secondary walls of xylem tissues. The largest density was recorded at Stage 3 (Figure 8B, D, and F). Lignin was deposited in the vascular bundles and the cell walls, and strong lignification was observed in the xylem. No difference in the lignin content in leaf blade cell walls was detected among the three stages. However, the lignin content in petiole vascular bundles increased with development and was particularly high in the secondary walls of xylem tissues. Lignin accumulated in the vascular tissues at Stage 1, and the highest lignin content was recorded at Stage 3.


De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development.

Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Fluorescence micrographs showing surface and transverse sections of ‘Ventura'.Lignin autofluorescence was visualized following ultraviolet excitation at 365 nm (Scale bar = 20 μm). (A), (C), (E): Fluorescence micrographs showing surface sections of leaf blade; (B), (D), (F): Fluorescence micrographs showing transverse sections of petiole. (A), (B): Stage 1 of ‘Ventura'; (C), (D): Stage 2 of ‘Ventura'; (E), (F): Stage 3 of ‘Ventura'. P: phloem; X: xylem.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317703&req=5

f8: Fluorescence micrographs showing surface and transverse sections of ‘Ventura'.Lignin autofluorescence was visualized following ultraviolet excitation at 365 nm (Scale bar = 20 μm). (A), (C), (E): Fluorescence micrographs showing surface sections of leaf blade; (B), (D), (F): Fluorescence micrographs showing transverse sections of petiole. (A), (B): Stage 1 of ‘Ventura'; (C), (D): Stage 2 of ‘Ventura'; (E), (F): Stage 3 of ‘Ventura'. P: phloem; X: xylem.
Mentions: The UV-excited fluorescence in the leaf blades and petioles of celery is shown in Figure 8. Autofluorescence was easily observed in the leaves at the three stages. Lignin fluorescence was observed in the vascular bundles and cell walls, and a strong intensity was detected in the xylem. No difference was detected in the location or intensity of lignin autofluorescence in the cell walls of the leaf blades among the three stages (Figure 8A, C, and E). The vascular bundles in the petioles expanded with development and were intensely located in the secondary walls of xylem tissues. The largest density was recorded at Stage 3 (Figure 8B, D, and F). Lignin was deposited in the vascular bundles and the cell walls, and strong lignification was observed in the xylem. No difference in the lignin content in leaf blade cell walls was detected among the three stages. However, the lignin content in petiole vascular bundles increased with development and was particularly high in the secondary walls of xylem tissues. Lignin accumulated in the vascular tissues at Stage 1, and the highest lignin content was recorded at Stage 3.

Bottom Line: Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value.Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis.Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus