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De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development.

Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value.Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis.Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

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Monolignol biosynthetic pathway in celery.Genes involved in this pathway include AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD, which respectively encode PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3H, CCoAOMT, CCR, CAD, F5H, COMT, and POD. Abbreviations: PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; C4H, cinnamate4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; HCT, hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase; C3H, P-coumarate 3-hydroxylase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; CCR, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; F5H, ferulate5-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeicacid 3-O-methyltransferase; POD, peroxidase.
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f11: Monolignol biosynthetic pathway in celery.Genes involved in this pathway include AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD, which respectively encode PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3H, CCoAOMT, CCR, CAD, F5H, COMT, and POD. Abbreviations: PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; C4H, cinnamate4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; HCT, hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase; C3H, P-coumarate 3-hydroxylase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; CCR, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; F5H, ferulate5-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeicacid 3-O-methyltransferase; POD, peroxidase.

Mentions: Monolignol biosynthesis, which contributes to celery taste, was selected for further analysis. The 11 genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are members of multigene families in higher plant (e.g. 9 CAD in Arabidopsis, 9 CAD in rice, 3 COMT in oat grass, 5 PAL in pine). In celery, the genes (AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD) involved in lignin biosynthesis maybe also have multiple copies (Figure 11). The AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD genes were identified using a BLAST-based search tool from the transcriptome data of celery. In this study, the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in celery showing high homology with the reported genes participated in lignin biosynthesis were selected. These selected genes also showed high RNA transcript levels based on the transcriptome data of different stages of celery.


De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development.

Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Monolignol biosynthetic pathway in celery.Genes involved in this pathway include AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD, which respectively encode PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3H, CCoAOMT, CCR, CAD, F5H, COMT, and POD. Abbreviations: PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; C4H, cinnamate4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; HCT, hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase; C3H, P-coumarate 3-hydroxylase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; CCR, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; F5H, ferulate5-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeicacid 3-O-methyltransferase; POD, peroxidase.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317703&req=5

f11: Monolignol biosynthetic pathway in celery.Genes involved in this pathway include AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD, which respectively encode PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3H, CCoAOMT, CCR, CAD, F5H, COMT, and POD. Abbreviations: PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; C4H, cinnamate4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; HCT, hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase; C3H, P-coumarate 3-hydroxylase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; CCR, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; F5H, ferulate5-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeicacid 3-O-methyltransferase; POD, peroxidase.
Mentions: Monolignol biosynthesis, which contributes to celery taste, was selected for further analysis. The 11 genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are members of multigene families in higher plant (e.g. 9 CAD in Arabidopsis, 9 CAD in rice, 3 COMT in oat grass, 5 PAL in pine). In celery, the genes (AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD) involved in lignin biosynthesis maybe also have multiple copies (Figure 11). The AgPAL, AgC4H, Ag4CL, AgHCT, AgC3H, AgCCoAOMT, AgCCR, AgCAD, AgF5H, AgCOMT, AgPOD genes were identified using a BLAST-based search tool from the transcriptome data of celery. In this study, the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in celery showing high homology with the reported genes participated in lignin biosynthesis were selected. These selected genes also showed high RNA transcript levels based on the transcriptome data of different stages of celery.

Bottom Line: Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value.Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis.Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus