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De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development.

Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value.Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis.Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Safranin O-fast green staining of lignin in leaf blade cross section at three stages of ‘Ventura'.(A): mesophyll of Stage 1 × 40; (B): leaf vein of Stage 1 × 40; (C): mesophyll of Stage 2 × 40; (D): leaf vein of Stage 2 × 40; (E): mesophyll of Stage 3 × 40; (F): leaf vein of Stage 3 × 40. Ep: epidermis; Pt: palisade tissue; St: spongy tissue; C: collenchyma; V: vascular bundles.
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f10: Safranin O-fast green staining of lignin in leaf blade cross section at three stages of ‘Ventura'.(A): mesophyll of Stage 1 × 40; (B): leaf vein of Stage 1 × 40; (C): mesophyll of Stage 2 × 40; (D): leaf vein of Stage 2 × 40; (E): mesophyll of Stage 3 × 40; (F): leaf vein of Stage 3 × 40. Ep: epidermis; Pt: palisade tissue; St: spongy tissue; C: collenchyma; V: vascular bundles.

Mentions: Safranin O-fast green reagent was used for lignin histochemical staining to qualitatively evaluate lignin content. Leaf blades and petioles were embedded in paraffin, and cross sections were stained with safranin O-fast green. Red staining indicated lignin deposition. As illustrated in Figure 9, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles showed slight lignification at Stage 1. No significant difference was detected in lignin contents in the collenchymas and epidermis between Stage 1 and Stage 2, but strong lignification was observed at Stage 3 (Figure 9A, C, and E). Lignin accumulation in the vascular bundles increased with the stages, and strong lignification was observed in the xylem (Figure 9B, D, and E). Only a slight deposition in vascular bundle was observed at Stage 1, and considerable deposition was previously observed at Stage 3. As shown in Figure 10, lignin accumulation occurred and gradually increased in the palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues at the three stages. The palisade and spongy tissues showed minimal lignification at Stage 1 but demonstrated strong lignification at Stage 3. No lignin deposition was observed in the leaf vein of the three stages.


De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development.

Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Safranin O-fast green staining of lignin in leaf blade cross section at three stages of ‘Ventura'.(A): mesophyll of Stage 1 × 40; (B): leaf vein of Stage 1 × 40; (C): mesophyll of Stage 2 × 40; (D): leaf vein of Stage 2 × 40; (E): mesophyll of Stage 3 × 40; (F): leaf vein of Stage 3 × 40. Ep: epidermis; Pt: palisade tissue; St: spongy tissue; C: collenchyma; V: vascular bundles.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317703&req=5

f10: Safranin O-fast green staining of lignin in leaf blade cross section at three stages of ‘Ventura'.(A): mesophyll of Stage 1 × 40; (B): leaf vein of Stage 1 × 40; (C): mesophyll of Stage 2 × 40; (D): leaf vein of Stage 2 × 40; (E): mesophyll of Stage 3 × 40; (F): leaf vein of Stage 3 × 40. Ep: epidermis; Pt: palisade tissue; St: spongy tissue; C: collenchyma; V: vascular bundles.
Mentions: Safranin O-fast green reagent was used for lignin histochemical staining to qualitatively evaluate lignin content. Leaf blades and petioles were embedded in paraffin, and cross sections were stained with safranin O-fast green. Red staining indicated lignin deposition. As illustrated in Figure 9, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles showed slight lignification at Stage 1. No significant difference was detected in lignin contents in the collenchymas and epidermis between Stage 1 and Stage 2, but strong lignification was observed at Stage 3 (Figure 9A, C, and E). Lignin accumulation in the vascular bundles increased with the stages, and strong lignification was observed in the xylem (Figure 9B, D, and E). Only a slight deposition in vascular bundle was observed at Stage 1, and considerable deposition was previously observed at Stage 3. As shown in Figure 10, lignin accumulation occurred and gradually increased in the palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues at the three stages. The palisade and spongy tissues showed minimal lignification at Stage 1 but demonstrated strong lignification at Stage 3. No lignin deposition was observed in the leaf vein of the three stages.

Bottom Line: Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value.Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis.Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus