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Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis.

Jia H, Hu Y, Fan T, Li J - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots.Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells.In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

ABSTRACT
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

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Effects of H2S on the expression of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of the transgenic lines.(a) Histochemical GUS staining patterns of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 100 μm. (b) GUS activity of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a). Mean values and SE are calculated from three replicates in (b) and (c). Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).
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f8: Effects of H2S on the expression of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of the transgenic lines.(a) Histochemical GUS staining patterns of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 100 μm. (b) GUS activity of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a). Mean values and SE are calculated from three replicates in (b) and (c). Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).

Mentions: A regulatory system that contains the actin filaments (F-actin) and actin-binding proteins (ABPs) is required for these processes, and the diverse actin cytoskeleton is directly controlled by different ABPs224546. Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) sever F-actin and increase the rate of dissociation of actin monomers from the pointed ends47. Capping proteins (CPs) inhibit the growth of F-actin at the barbed end23. Profilins (PRFs) bind to G-actin to inhibit polymerization48. These proteins all have the potential to decrease the occupancy percentage of the F-actin bundles202149. We examined the effects of H2S on the expression of ADFs, CPs and PRFs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of ADF1 and ADF4 decreased following NaHS treatment for 6 to 24 h (Fig. 7a), and the expression of CPA, CPB and PRF3 increased after NaHS treatment in 3 to 24 h (Fig. 7b & c). We further examined the expression of CPA::GUS, CPB::GUS and PRF3::GUS. The results showed that the application of NaHS or GYY4137 significantly promoted CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS gene expression in the root apices (Fig. 8a). The GUS gene expression was also enhanced by NaHS in root and leaf samples of PRF3::GUS (Fig. 9a). The GUS activity showed a similar profile in the CPA::GUS, CPB::GUS and PRF3::GUS transgenic lines (Fig. 8b, c, & 9b). These data suggested that H2S may affect F-action via regulating CPA, CPB and PRF3 expression.


Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis.

Jia H, Hu Y, Fan T, Li J - Sci Rep (2015)

Effects of H2S on the expression of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of the transgenic lines.(a) Histochemical GUS staining patterns of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 100 μm. (b) GUS activity of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a). Mean values and SE are calculated from three replicates in (b) and (c). Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317700&req=5

f8: Effects of H2S on the expression of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of the transgenic lines.(a) Histochemical GUS staining patterns of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 100 μm. (b) GUS activity of CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS in the roots of 5-d-old seedlings treated with 200 μM NaHS or 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a). Mean values and SE are calculated from three replicates in (b) and (c). Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).
Mentions: A regulatory system that contains the actin filaments (F-actin) and actin-binding proteins (ABPs) is required for these processes, and the diverse actin cytoskeleton is directly controlled by different ABPs224546. Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) sever F-actin and increase the rate of dissociation of actin monomers from the pointed ends47. Capping proteins (CPs) inhibit the growth of F-actin at the barbed end23. Profilins (PRFs) bind to G-actin to inhibit polymerization48. These proteins all have the potential to decrease the occupancy percentage of the F-actin bundles202149. We examined the effects of H2S on the expression of ADFs, CPs and PRFs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of ADF1 and ADF4 decreased following NaHS treatment for 6 to 24 h (Fig. 7a), and the expression of CPA, CPB and PRF3 increased after NaHS treatment in 3 to 24 h (Fig. 7b & c). We further examined the expression of CPA::GUS, CPB::GUS and PRF3::GUS. The results showed that the application of NaHS or GYY4137 significantly promoted CPA::GUS and CPB::GUS gene expression in the root apices (Fig. 8a). The GUS gene expression was also enhanced by NaHS in root and leaf samples of PRF3::GUS (Fig. 9a). The GUS activity showed a similar profile in the CPA::GUS, CPB::GUS and PRF3::GUS transgenic lines (Fig. 8b, c, & 9b). These data suggested that H2S may affect F-action via regulating CPA, CPB and PRF3 expression.

Bottom Line: H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots.Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells.In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

ABSTRACT
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus