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Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis.

Jia H, Hu Y, Fan T, Li J - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots.Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells.In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

ABSTRACT
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

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H2S modulates the expression and distribution of PIN proteins in apical zone of the primary root.(a) Distribution of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP proteins were shown in untreated control plants, treated with 200 μM NaHS and treated with 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 5 μm. (b) Fluorescence density of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP, the transgenic lines were treated with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a) and (b). The arrows indicated the compartments formation of PINs. Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).
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f5: H2S modulates the expression and distribution of PIN proteins in apical zone of the primary root.(a) Distribution of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP proteins were shown in untreated control plants, treated with 200 μM NaHS and treated with 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 5 μm. (b) Fluorescence density of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP, the transgenic lines were treated with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a) and (b). The arrows indicated the compartments formation of PINs. Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).

Mentions: The PIN proteins are important regulators in the establishment stage and in the auxin gradient in plants11. The polar subcellular localization of the PIN proteins at the plasma membrane determines the directionality of auxin flow40, thus contributing to regulation of multiple aspects of plant development41. Therefore, we examined the fluorescence of GFP fusions to PINs in Arabidopsis roots to determine if H2S could regulate the subcellular localization of the PIN proteins. The PIN proteins were clearly visible in the plasma membrane and showed a polar distribution in the control seedlings (Fig. 5). Treatment with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h showed the loss of their polar distribution at the plasma membrane in the root epidermal cells. Notably, a substantial amount of the PIN:GFP signal dissociated from the plasma membrane upon cytoplasmic entry (Fig. 5). In addition, the fluorescent intensity of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, and PIN7:GFP increased after the roots were treated with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h in root epidermal cells (PIN1 increased from 25.3% and 11.2% in response to NaHS and GYY4137, respectively; PIN2 increased from 87.2% and 53.9%; PIN7 increased from 35.6% and 25.9%, Fig. 5b). In contrast, the fluorescent intensity of PIN4:GFP decreased (by 24.7% and 30.6% after NaHS and GYY4137, respectively, Fig. 5b). The localization of PIN1 and PIN2 were observed in the cpa, cpb, pfr3 mutants (Fig. S7). The plasma membrane localization of PIN1 and PIN2 was similar between the ABP mutants and the WT samples. After treatment with NaHS for 6 h, the PIN1 localization was altered in both the ABP and WT samples. In contrast, the localization of PIN2 also changed following 6 h NaHS treatment in the cpa and pfr3 mutants and the WT samples. While the localization in the cpb mutant did not immediately change, after treatment with NaHS for 12 h, the PIN2 localization was altered in both ABP mutants and WT (Fig. S7).


Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis.

Jia H, Hu Y, Fan T, Li J - Sci Rep (2015)

H2S modulates the expression and distribution of PIN proteins in apical zone of the primary root.(a) Distribution of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP proteins were shown in untreated control plants, treated with 200 μM NaHS and treated with 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 5 μm. (b) Fluorescence density of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP, the transgenic lines were treated with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a) and (b). The arrows indicated the compartments formation of PINs. Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317700&req=5

f5: H2S modulates the expression and distribution of PIN proteins in apical zone of the primary root.(a) Distribution of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP proteins were shown in untreated control plants, treated with 200 μM NaHS and treated with 100 μM GYY4137 for 6 h. Images shown are representative of each treatment. Scale bar = 5 μm. (b) Fluorescence density of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, PIN4:GFP and PIN7:GFP, the transgenic lines were treated with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h. Data are mean values and SE (n > 25) in (a) and (b). The arrows indicated the compartments formation of PINs. Within each set of experiments, bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05, Duncan's multiple range tests).
Mentions: The PIN proteins are important regulators in the establishment stage and in the auxin gradient in plants11. The polar subcellular localization of the PIN proteins at the plasma membrane determines the directionality of auxin flow40, thus contributing to regulation of multiple aspects of plant development41. Therefore, we examined the fluorescence of GFP fusions to PINs in Arabidopsis roots to determine if H2S could regulate the subcellular localization of the PIN proteins. The PIN proteins were clearly visible in the plasma membrane and showed a polar distribution in the control seedlings (Fig. 5). Treatment with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h showed the loss of their polar distribution at the plasma membrane in the root epidermal cells. Notably, a substantial amount of the PIN:GFP signal dissociated from the plasma membrane upon cytoplasmic entry (Fig. 5). In addition, the fluorescent intensity of PIN1:GFP, PIN2:GFP, and PIN7:GFP increased after the roots were treated with NaHS or GYY4137 for 6 h in root epidermal cells (PIN1 increased from 25.3% and 11.2% in response to NaHS and GYY4137, respectively; PIN2 increased from 87.2% and 53.9%; PIN7 increased from 35.6% and 25.9%, Fig. 5b). In contrast, the fluorescent intensity of PIN4:GFP decreased (by 24.7% and 30.6% after NaHS and GYY4137, respectively, Fig. 5b). The localization of PIN1 and PIN2 were observed in the cpa, cpb, pfr3 mutants (Fig. S7). The plasma membrane localization of PIN1 and PIN2 was similar between the ABP mutants and the WT samples. After treatment with NaHS for 6 h, the PIN1 localization was altered in both the ABP and WT samples. In contrast, the localization of PIN2 also changed following 6 h NaHS treatment in the cpa and pfr3 mutants and the WT samples. While the localization in the cpb mutant did not immediately change, after treatment with NaHS for 12 h, the PIN2 localization was altered in both ABP mutants and WT (Fig. S7).

Bottom Line: H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots.Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells.In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

ABSTRACT
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus