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Importance of silicon and mechanisms of biosilica formation in plants.

Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Siti Nor Akmar A, Rafii MY, Azizi P, Tengoua FF, Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa J, Shabanimofrad M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution.The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4.Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Plantation Crops, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

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Schematic of Si species oxolation process.
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fig6: Schematic of Si species oxolation process.

Mentions: Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted to show the importance of biomolecules in biosilicification. Functional groups of all amino acids residues in protein's structure are accessible to silica and have a key role in determining the physical structure and nature of the substances which form during the maturing stages. It has been suggested that the role of amino acid in biosilicification may be the same as their in vivo role. In this case, effects of amino acids in biosilicification and their in vivo arrangements role can be a key factor to control biosilicification [158]. Peptides and amino acids are effective in creating polysilicic species via interactions with different species of silicate in the solution. Both forms of the silicate species, neutral Si(OH)4 and negatively charged [SiO(OH)3]−, are implicated in the oxolation procedure (Figure 6).


Importance of silicon and mechanisms of biosilica formation in plants.

Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Siti Nor Akmar A, Rafii MY, Azizi P, Tengoua FF, Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa J, Shabanimofrad M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Schematic of Si species oxolation process.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317640&req=5

fig6: Schematic of Si species oxolation process.
Mentions: Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted to show the importance of biomolecules in biosilicification. Functional groups of all amino acids residues in protein's structure are accessible to silica and have a key role in determining the physical structure and nature of the substances which form during the maturing stages. It has been suggested that the role of amino acid in biosilicification may be the same as their in vivo role. In this case, effects of amino acids in biosilicification and their in vivo arrangements role can be a key factor to control biosilicification [158]. Peptides and amino acids are effective in creating polysilicic species via interactions with different species of silicate in the solution. Both forms of the silicate species, neutral Si(OH)4 and negatively charged [SiO(OH)3]−, are implicated in the oxolation procedure (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution.The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4.Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Plantation Crops, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus