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Importance of silicon and mechanisms of biosilica formation in plants.

Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Siti Nor Akmar A, Rafii MY, Azizi P, Tengoua FF, Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa J, Shabanimofrad M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution.The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4.Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Plantation Crops, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

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Mono- and polysilicic acids hydration.
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fig1: Mono- and polysilicic acids hydration.

Mentions: Monosilicic acid or orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) is the Si forms that are absorbed by plants root [43, 44]. Consequently, Si accumulates in the epidermal tissues, and a layer of cellulose membrane-Si is created when Ca and pectin ions are present [45], which provides protection to the plant [19, 46, 47]. Increasing of Si in the sap of plants leads to Si polymerisation [48], identified as Si gel hydrated with water molecules [49]. The process of mono- and polysilicic acids hydration is as follows (Figure 1).


Importance of silicon and mechanisms of biosilica formation in plants.

Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Siti Nor Akmar A, Rafii MY, Azizi P, Tengoua FF, Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa J, Shabanimofrad M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Mono- and polysilicic acids hydration.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317640&req=5

fig1: Mono- and polysilicic acids hydration.
Mentions: Monosilicic acid or orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) is the Si forms that are absorbed by plants root [43, 44]. Consequently, Si accumulates in the epidermal tissues, and a layer of cellulose membrane-Si is created when Ca and pectin ions are present [45], which provides protection to the plant [19, 46, 47]. Increasing of Si in the sap of plants leads to Si polymerisation [48], identified as Si gel hydrated with water molecules [49]. The process of mono- and polysilicic acids hydration is as follows (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution.The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4.Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Plantation Crops, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus