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Study protocol: psychological and physiological consequences of exposure to mass media in young women - an experimental cross-sectional and longitudinal study and the role of moderators.

Munsch S - BMC Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Evaluating their differential susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the role of negative body image in the maintenance of not only symptoms of ED, but also of depression, anxiety and SSD.Additionally our results will shed light on the stability of effects in healthy controls as well as in the patient groups before and after treatment as usual.Findings foster the development of tailored interventions including a training in specific ER strategies as well as cognitive restructuring of distorted beliefs about the own body when confronted with thin ideals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychtherapy, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Repeated exposure to thin beauty ideals is part of the daily routine. Exposure to thin ideals via mass media plays an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), low self-esteem, depressive or anxious feelings in young females. It is important to elucidate the circumstances under which exposure to thin ideals develops its detrimental impact and to investigate whether these features are more pronounced in EDs than in other mental disorders also related to negative body image.

Methods/design: We investigate the following key questions: (1) Does laboratory induced exposure to thin ideals (waiting room design) relate to impairments in terms of body image, affect and eating behavior and biological stress response (salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate and heart rate variability) in 18 to 35 year old female suffering from anorexia and bulimia nervosa (AN, BN) compared to female healthy controls and to a sample of females suffering from mixed mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptom disorder (SSD) disorders)? (2) How do moderators such as cognitive distortions ("Thought-Shape Fusion, TSF"), and correlates of emotion regulation (ER) moderate the influence of the exposure? (3) Are these characteristics amenable to change after treatment? Altogether 250 female participants including patients with AN, BN, depressive, anxiety and SSD disorders, and healthy women will be recruited in Switzerland and Germany.

Discussion: The findings will provide knowledge about the role of moderators influencing the effects of exposure to thin ideals promoted by mass media in eating disorder (ED) patients, patients suffering from mixed mental disorders and healthy controls. Evaluating their differential susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the role of negative body image in the maintenance of not only symptoms of ED, but also of depression, anxiety and SSD. Additionally our results will shed light on the stability of effects in healthy controls as well as in the patient groups before and after treatment as usual. Findings foster the development of tailored interventions including a training in specific ER strategies as well as cognitive restructuring of distorted beliefs about the own body when confronted with thin ideals.

Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00005709. Date of registration: 6(th) of February, 2014.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental procedure.
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Fig5: Experimental procedure.

Mentions: 3. TSF Induction: After sampling of the 6th saliva sample and completing questionnaires (pre TSF Induction), TSF is induced (Radomsky et al. 2002; Shafran et al. 1999; Coelho et al. 2008): Participants in the thin ideal exposure group will be asked to imagine the female bodies in the magazine which they considered to be most attractive (TSF induction) in vivid detail, including height, weight, breast, hip, legs, arms, etc. for a 5 minutes period. If they did not read the magazine they are instructed to imaging attractive bodies in general as described above. In the neutral condition they are asked to imagine landscape pictures in the magazine that they liked most. Participants are then asked to write down the sentence: “I am imagining…” (describing the female body or the landscape respectively they are imaging (Radomsky et al. 2002)). After completing the TSF induction participants are asked to fill in the same questionnaires plus the body_TSFstate and the 7th salvia sample is collected (post TSF induction/ pre neutralization). At this point participants have the opportunity to neutralize their feelings during 5 minutes (Shafran & Robinson 2004; Shafran et al. 1999). Examples of neutralization activities will be provided including exercising (e.g. jumping jack), body checking, drawing pictures or mental neutralization (e.g. imagining to exercise, counting, etc.). The experimenter takes note whether the participant chose to neutralize the statements. The 8th salvia sample is collected and the questionnaires plus body_TSFstate completed (post neutralisation) (Figure 5 illustrates the experimental procedure).


Study protocol: psychological and physiological consequences of exposure to mass media in young women - an experimental cross-sectional and longitudinal study and the role of moderators.

Munsch S - BMC Psychol (2014)

Experimental procedure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4317137&req=5

Fig5: Experimental procedure.
Mentions: 3. TSF Induction: After sampling of the 6th saliva sample and completing questionnaires (pre TSF Induction), TSF is induced (Radomsky et al. 2002; Shafran et al. 1999; Coelho et al. 2008): Participants in the thin ideal exposure group will be asked to imagine the female bodies in the magazine which they considered to be most attractive (TSF induction) in vivid detail, including height, weight, breast, hip, legs, arms, etc. for a 5 minutes period. If they did not read the magazine they are instructed to imaging attractive bodies in general as described above. In the neutral condition they are asked to imagine landscape pictures in the magazine that they liked most. Participants are then asked to write down the sentence: “I am imagining…” (describing the female body or the landscape respectively they are imaging (Radomsky et al. 2002)). After completing the TSF induction participants are asked to fill in the same questionnaires plus the body_TSFstate and the 7th salvia sample is collected (post TSF induction/ pre neutralization). At this point participants have the opportunity to neutralize their feelings during 5 minutes (Shafran & Robinson 2004; Shafran et al. 1999). Examples of neutralization activities will be provided including exercising (e.g. jumping jack), body checking, drawing pictures or mental neutralization (e.g. imagining to exercise, counting, etc.). The experimenter takes note whether the participant chose to neutralize the statements. The 8th salvia sample is collected and the questionnaires plus body_TSFstate completed (post neutralisation) (Figure 5 illustrates the experimental procedure).

Bottom Line: Evaluating their differential susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the role of negative body image in the maintenance of not only symptoms of ED, but also of depression, anxiety and SSD.Additionally our results will shed light on the stability of effects in healthy controls as well as in the patient groups before and after treatment as usual.Findings foster the development of tailored interventions including a training in specific ER strategies as well as cognitive restructuring of distorted beliefs about the own body when confronted with thin ideals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychtherapy, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Repeated exposure to thin beauty ideals is part of the daily routine. Exposure to thin ideals via mass media plays an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), low self-esteem, depressive or anxious feelings in young females. It is important to elucidate the circumstances under which exposure to thin ideals develops its detrimental impact and to investigate whether these features are more pronounced in EDs than in other mental disorders also related to negative body image.

Methods/design: We investigate the following key questions: (1) Does laboratory induced exposure to thin ideals (waiting room design) relate to impairments in terms of body image, affect and eating behavior and biological stress response (salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate and heart rate variability) in 18 to 35 year old female suffering from anorexia and bulimia nervosa (AN, BN) compared to female healthy controls and to a sample of females suffering from mixed mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptom disorder (SSD) disorders)? (2) How do moderators such as cognitive distortions ("Thought-Shape Fusion, TSF"), and correlates of emotion regulation (ER) moderate the influence of the exposure? (3) Are these characteristics amenable to change after treatment? Altogether 250 female participants including patients with AN, BN, depressive, anxiety and SSD disorders, and healthy women will be recruited in Switzerland and Germany.

Discussion: The findings will provide knowledge about the role of moderators influencing the effects of exposure to thin ideals promoted by mass media in eating disorder (ED) patients, patients suffering from mixed mental disorders and healthy controls. Evaluating their differential susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the role of negative body image in the maintenance of not only symptoms of ED, but also of depression, anxiety and SSD. Additionally our results will shed light on the stability of effects in healthy controls as well as in the patient groups before and after treatment as usual. Findings foster the development of tailored interventions including a training in specific ER strategies as well as cognitive restructuring of distorted beliefs about the own body when confronted with thin ideals.

Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00005709. Date of registration: 6(th) of February, 2014.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus